Case Report
Volume 13 Issue 2 - 2021
Clinical Significance of the Unpaired Anterior Cerebral Artery
Valchkevich Dzmitry1* and Brytsko Volha22
1Department of Normal Anatomy, Grodno State Medical University, Grodno, Belarus
2Department of MRI, Grodno Emergency Hospital, Grodno, Belarus
*Corresponding Author: Valchkevich Dzmitry, Department of Normal Anatomy, Grodno State Medical University, Grodno, Belarus.
Received: December 17, 2020; Published: January 30, 2021


The Willis circle is an arterial anastomotic ring that connects the left internal carotid artery (ICA), the right ICA, and the vertebrobasilar system arteries via connecting arteries.

Any changes in the structure of the Willis circle can lead to severe neurological abnormalities. Currently, cerebrovascular diseases are a serious threat to modern society, which is characterized by an increasing number of patients with brain strokes.

One of the types of anatomical variation of the Willis circle is the absence of one of the anterior cerebral artery. This variation is sometimes described as an unpaired anterior cerebral artery (UACA).

A rare case of an unpaired anterior cerebral artery was described in this article.


Keywords: Unpaired Anterior Cerebral Artery (UACA); Willis Circle; Left Internal Carotid Artery (ICA)


    1. Wolpert SM. “The Circle of Willis”. American Journal of Neuroradiology 18 (1997): 1033-1034.
    2. McMinn RMH. “Last’s Anatomy: Regional and Applied”. 9th Edition, Hong Kong, Churchill Livingstone. (2003): 599-601.
    3. Willis T and Feindel W. “The Anatomy of the Brain and Nerves”. Classics of Medicine Library: Birmingham, AL (1978).
    4. Lutsky MA., et al. “Some features of the etiology and pathogenesis of ischemic stroke”. Systems Analysis and Management in Biomedical Systems3 (2011): 652-655.
    5. Meyers JL., et al. “Stroke and transient ischemic attack in the long-term care setting: patient characteristics, medication treatment, and length of stay”. Consultant Pharmacists 3 (2011): 170-181.
    6. Alawad AN., et al. “Morphology and normal variations of the cerebral arterial circle Willis in Khartoum Diagnostic Centre”. Khartoum Medical Journal2 (2009): 215-219.
    7. Huh JS., et al. “Saccular aneurysm of the azygos anterior cerebral artery: three case reports”. Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society 42 (2007): 342-345.
    8. Padget DN. “Designation of the embryonic intersegmental arteries in reference to the vertebral artery and subclavian stem”. The Anatomical Record 119 (1954): 349-356.
    9. Padget DN. “The development of the cranial arteries in the human embryo”. Contributions to Embryology 32 (1948): 205-261.
    10. Stefani MA., et al. “Anatomic variations of anterior cerebral artery cortical branches”. Clinical Anatomy 13 (2000): 231-236.
    11. Chaplygina EV., et al. “Development, anomalies and variant anatomy of brain arteries”. Journal of Anatomy and Histopathology 4 (2015): 2.
    12. Rhoton AL. “Cranial anatomy and surgical approaches”. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins (2007).
    13. Voljevica A. “Presentation of variations in the anterior part of the circle of Willis as a result of MRI-angiography method”. Medical Archives 58 (2004): 327-330.
    14. Pivchenko PG and Trushel NA. “Variability of the structure, topography and morphometric parameters of the vessels of the anterior part of the human Willisian circle 3.17 (2008): 85-90.
    15. Niederberger E. “Anatomic variants of the anterior part of the cerebral arterial circle at multidetector computed tomography angiography”. American Journal of Neuroradiology 37 (2010): 139-147.
    16. Parmar H., et al. “Normal variants of intracranial circulation demonstrated by MR angiography at 3 T”. European Journal of Radiology 56 (2005): 220-228.
    17. Kim MS and Lee GJ. “Diagnosis of persistent primitive olfactory artery using computed tomography angiography”. Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society 5 (2011): 290-291.
    18. Tahir RA., et al. “Anterior Cerebral Artery: Variant Anatomy and Pathology”. Journal of Vascular and Interventional Neurology 3 (2019): 16-22.
Citation: Valchkevich Dzmitry and Brytsko Volha. “Clinical Significance of the Unpaired Anterior Cerebral Artery”. EC Neurology 13.2 (2021): 44-47.

PubMed Indexed Article

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777

EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033

EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992

EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505

EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793

EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211

EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047

EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560

EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318

EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819

EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840

EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476

EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658

EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489

EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278

EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108

EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571

EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333

EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883

EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001

EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937

EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723

EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726

EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646

EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226

EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268

News and Events

November Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the November issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

Ecronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before December 08, 2021.

Certificate of Publication

Ecronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

Ecronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.

Immediate Assistance

The prime motto of this team is to clarify all the queries without any delay or hesitation to avoid the inconvenience. For immediate assistance on your queries please don't hesitate to drop an email to