Research Article
Volume 12 Issue 11 - 2020
The Effect of Cretan High Phenolic Olive Oil on Fecal Calprotectin Levels in the Course of Multiple Sclerosis
Greta Wozniak1,2*, Marios Kyprou1 and Magda Tsolaki3
1Department of Psychology, University of Cyprus, Cyprus
2Medical School, University of Cyprus, Cyprus
31stDepartment of Neurology, Medical School, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Makedonia, Greece
*Corresponding Author: Greta Wozniak, MD., PhD, Medical School, University of Cyprus, Cyprus.
Received: October 08, 2020; Published: October 30, 2020


Multiple sclerosis is a chronic immune-related inflammatory disease of the central nervous system that results in demyelination and lesions in the brain. Even though there is a massive research for the whole profile and treatment of the disease, to date, the etiopathology of multiple sclerosis is still unclear and there is no fully successful therapy. The urgent need to find new therapies led us to the search for the potential therapeutic effects of high phenolic early harvest extra virgin olive oil (HP-EH-EVOO) that interacts with the gut-brain axis. Recent research dictates that olive oil polyphenols can confront oxidative damage and inflammation through gut microbiota alterations. Therefore, we conducted a pilot study with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients. Patients in the experimental group, consumed Eliama Daily Value Gold - HP-EH-EVOO for 4 months, while patients in the control group did not. We used fecal calprotectin measurements at baseline, 2 and 4 months during the oil consumption to observe the inflammation status of the patients and found a decreased inflammation in the experimental group [F(2,14) = 10.38, p = .002]. Our results gave us an insight on how we can take advantage of our diet to treat multiple sclerosis and other inflammatory diseases. Nonetheless, it is important for future studies with bigger samples to replicate our results and extend the investigation in order for HP-EH-EVOO to be a proper candidate for clinical and therapeutic use.

Keywords: Multiple Sclerosis; Calprotectin; Gut Microbiota; Extra Virgin Olive Oil; Polyphenols


  1. Airas L. “Hormonal and gender‐related immune changes in multiple sclerosis”. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica 132 (2015): 62-70.
  2. Adamczyk B and Adamczyk-Sowa M. “New Insights into the Role of Oxidative Stress Mechanisms in the Pathophysiology and Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis”. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity (2016): 1-18.
  3. Naviaux RK. “Metabolic features of the cell danger response”. Mitochondrion 16 (2014): 7-17.
  4. Ortiz GG., et al. “Immunology and oxidative stress in multiple sclerosis: clinical and basic approach”. Clinical and Developmental Immunology (2013): 1-14.
  5. Olsson T. “Cytokines in neuroinflammatory disease: role of myelin autoreactive T cell production of interferon-gamma”. Journal of Neuroimmunology2 (1992): 211-218.
  6. Panitch HS., et al. “Treatment of multiple sclerosis with gamma interferon: exacerbations associated with activation of the immune system”. Neurology 7 (1987): 1097-1097.
  7. Skurkovich S., et al. “Randomized study of antibodies to IFN-g and TNF-a in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis”. Multiple Sclerosis Journal 5 (2001): 277-284.
  8. Arellano G., et al. “Stage-specific role of interferon-gamma in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and multiple sclerosis”. Frontiers in Immunology (2015): 6.
  9. Kimura A and Kishimoto T. “IL‐6: regulator of Treg/Th17 balance”. European Journal of Immunology 7 (2010): 1830-1835.
  10. Pistollato F., et al. “Role of gut microbiota and nutrients in amyloid formation and pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease”. Nutrition Reviews 10 (2016): 624-634.
  11. Shapiro H., et al. “The cross talk between microbiota and the immune system: metabolites take center stage”. Current Opinion in Immunology 30 (2014): 54-62.
  12. Gogou M. “The involvement of the intestinal microbiome in neuropsychiatric diseases”. Archives of Hellenic Medicine 5 (2017): 628-635.
  13. Heijtz RD. “Fetal, neonatal, and infant microbiome: Perturbations and subsequent effects on brain development and behavior”. Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine 6 (2016): 410-417.
  14. Rhee SH., et al. “Principles and clinical implications of the brain–gut–enteric microbiota axis”. Nature Reviews Gastroenterology and Hepatology 5 (2009): 306-314.
  15. Miyake S., et al. “Dysbiosis in the gut microbiota of patients with multiple sclerosis, with a striking depletion of species belonging to clostridia XIVa and IV clusters”. PloS one 9 (2015): e0137429.
  16. Chen J., et al. “Multiple sclerosis patients have a distinct gut microbiota compared to healthy controls”. Scientific Reports 1 (2016): 1-10.
  17. Ochoa-Repáraz J and Kasper LH. “The influence of gut-derived CD39 Treg in CNS demyelinating disease”. Translational Research 179 (2017): 126-138.
  18. Schirmer M., et al. “Linking the human gut microbiome to inflammatory cytokine production capacity”. Cell4 (2016): 1125-1136.
  19. Jangi S., et al. “Alterations of the human gut microbiome in multiple sclerosis”. Nature Communications1 (2016): 1-11.
  20. Ríos-Covián D., et al. “Intestinal Short Chain Fatty Acids and their Link with Diet and Human Health”. Frontiers in Microbiology (2016): 7.
  21. Shahi SK., et al. “Gut microbiome in multiple sclerosis: the players involved and the roles they play”. Gut Microbes6 (2017): 607-615.
  22. Haghikia A., et al. “Dietary fatty acids directly impact central nervous system autoimmunity via the small intestine”. Immunity4 (2015): 817-829.
  23. Cantarel BL., et al. “Gut microbiota in multiple sclerosis: possible influence of immunomodulators”. Journal of Investigative Medicine5 (2015): 729-734.
  24. Duda-Chodak A., et al. “Interaction of dietary compounds, especially polyphenols, with the intestinal microbiota: a review”. European Journal of Nutrition3 (2015): 325-341.
  25. Boskou D. “Olive oil: chemistry and technology”. AOCS Publishing (2006).
  26. Ghanbari R., et al. “Valuable nutrients and functional bioactives in different parts of olive (Olea europaea L.)-a review”. International Journal of Molecular Sciences3 (2012): 3291-3340.
  27. Bulotta S., et al. “Beneficial effects of the olive oil phenolic components oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol: focus on protection against cardiovascular and metabolic diseases”. Journal of Translational Medicine1 (2014): 219.
  28. Hu T., et al. “Hydroxytyrosol and its potential therapeutic effects”. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry7 (2014): 1449-1455.
  29. Boskou D. “Olive and olive oil bioactive constituents”. Elsevier (2015).
  30. Alkayali A. “Hydroxytyrosol Product, Method of Making, and Uses Thereof”. U.S. Patent Application (2013).
  31. Aree T and Jongrungruangchok S. “Structure–antioxidant activity relationship of β-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes with olive tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein: Deep insights from X-ray analysis, DFT calculation and DPPH assay”. Carbohydrate Polymers 199 (2018): 661-669.
  32. Vougogiannopoulou K., et al. “One-step semisynthesis of oleacein and the determination as a 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor”. Journal of Natural Products3 (2014): 441-445.
  33. Burnett BP and Levy RM. “5-Lipoxygenase metabolic contributions to NSAID-induced organ toxicity”. Advances in Therapy2 (2012): 79-98.
  34. Laidlaw TM and Boyce JA. “Pathogenesis of aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease and reactions”. Immunology and Allergy Clinics2 (2013): 195-210.
  35. Scotece M., et al. “Further evidence for the anti-inflammatory activity of oleocanthal: inhibition of MIP-1α and IL-6 in J774 macrophages and in ATDC5 chondrocytes”. Life sciences23-24 (2012): 1229-1235.
  36. Pang KL and Chin KY. “The biological activities of oleocanthal from a molecular perspective”. Nutrients5 (2018): 570.
  37. Carito V., et al. “Neurotrophins' modulation by olive polyphenols”. Current Medicinal Chemistry28 (2016): 3189-3197.
  38. Angeloni C., et al. “Bioactivity of olive oil phenols in neuroprotection”. International Journal of Molecular Sciences11 (2017): 2230.
  39. Kostas A., et al. “Fecal calprotectin measurement is a marker of short-term clinical outcome and presence of mucosal healing in patients with inflammatory bowel disease”. World Journal of Gastroenterology41 (2017): 7387-7396.
  40. Conde C., et al. “The protective effect of extra-virgin olive oil in the experimental model of multiple sclerosis in the rat”. Nutritional Neuroscience1 (2020): 37-48.
  41. Aparicio-Soto M., et al. “Extra virgin olive oil: a key functional food for prevention of immune-inflammatory diseases”. Food and Function11 (2016): 4492-4505.
  42. Santangelo C., et al. “Anti-inflammatory activity of extra virgin olive oil polyphenols: which role in the prevention and treatment of immune-mediated inflammatory diseases?” Endocrine, Metabolic and Immune Disorders-Drug Targets1 (2018): 36-50.
  43. Mariani A., et al. “Serum calprotectin: review of its usefulness and validity in paediatric rheumatic diseases”. Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology1 (2015): 109-114.
  44. Lasson A., et al. “Fecal calprotectin levels predict the clinical course in patients with new onset of ulcerative colitis”. Inflammatory Bowel Diseases3 (2013): 576-581.
  45. Golden BE., et al. “Calprotectin as a marker of inflammation in cystic fibrosis”. Archives of Disease in Childhood2 (1996): 136-139.
  46. Floris S., et al. “Monocyte activation and disease activity in multiple sclerosis. A longitudinal analysis of serum MRP8/14 levels”. Journal of Neuroimmunology1-2 (2004): 172-177.
  47. Berg-Hansen P., et al. “Calprotectin levels in the cerebrospinal fluid reflect disease activity in multiple sclerosis”. Journal of Neuroimmunology1-2 (2009): 98-102.
  48. Lin CH., et al. “New insights into an autoimmune mechanism, pharmacological treatment and relationship between multiple sclerosis and inflammatory bowel disease”. Autoimmunity Reviews2 (2014): 114-116.
  49. Singh S., et al. “Neurologic complications in patients with inflammatory bowel disease: increasing relevance in the era of biologics”. Inflammatory Bowel Diseases4 (2012): 864-872.
  50. Alkhawajah MM., et al. “Multiple sclerosis and inflammatory bowel diseases: what we know and what we would need to know!” Multiple Sclerosis Journal3 (2013): 259-265.
  51. Lehmann FS., et al. “The role and utility of faecal markers in inflammatory bowel disease”. Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology1 (2015): 23-36.
  52. Kievit R., et al. “Simpson's paradox in psychological science: a practical guide”. Frontiers in Psychology (2013): 4.
Citation: Greta Wozniak., et al. “The Effect of Cretan High Phenolic Olive Oil on Fecal Calprotectin Levels in the Course of Multiple Sclerosis”. EC Neurology 12.11 (2020): 65-79.

PubMed Indexed Article

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777

EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033

EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992

EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505

EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793

EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211

EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047

EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560

EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318

EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819

EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840

EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476

EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658

EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489

EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278

EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108

EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571

EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333

EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883

EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001

EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937

EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723

EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726

EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646

EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226

EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268

News and Events

November Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the November issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

Ecronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before December 08, 2021.

Certificate of Publication

Ecronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

Ecronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.

Immediate Assistance

The prime motto of this team is to clarify all the queries without any delay or hesitation to avoid the inconvenience. For immediate assistance on your queries please don't hesitate to drop an email to