Review Article
Volume 12 Issue 11 - 2020
Stress Dresses Woman: Sex and Gender Differences
Giuseppe Gullace1*, Andrea Salmaggi2, Matilde de Prospero3 and Gabriele Catena4
1Consultant Cardiologist, Multimedica Hospital Group, Milan and Past Director of Cardiovascular Department, Cardiology Unit, Cardiac Rehabilitation Unit, Territorial Specialistic and Activity Department, Azienda Ospedaliera della Provincia di Lecco, Lecco and Past Adjunct Professor of Cardiology, University of Florence, Italy
2Director of Neurology Unit and Director of Neuroscience Department, Azienda Socio Sanitaria Territoriale di Lecco, Italy
3Psychologist and psychotherapist, Lecco, Italy
4Director of Cardiologia Territoriale, Azienda Socio Sanitaria Locale, Teramo, Italy
*Corresponding Author: Giuseppe Gullace, Via San Leonardo 11 23864 Malgrate (Lecco), Italy.
Received: September 22, 2020; Published: October 28, 2020


Stress is defined as a real or interpreted threat to physiological or integrity of an individual that results in physiological and behavioral responses; as a reaction to internal/external stimuli, it is considered a normal physiological response of the body to protect or to adapt itself to changed conditions occurring at biochemical or biological or behavioral level. Depending on different cultures, stress is viewed as an absence of inner peace (eastern countries) or as a loss of control (western countries). Stress responses are quite different in man and woman in many situations as well as their susceptibility to lifestyle changes, risk factors and diseases. Woman is more exposed to stress due to her different biological, neuro hormonal and psycho behavioral structures influencing day life, the occurrence of specific diseases, social condition and the continuous attempt to overcome inequality. The present paper tries to review the knowledges about the physiopathology of stress, the sex/gender different structures, the prevalence of stress related risk factors and diseases with special reference to woman and the different stress responses, with the addition of a short personal experience.

Keywords: Stress; Physiological and Behavioral Responses; Internal/External Stimuli; Woman


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Citation: Giuseppe Gullace., et al. “Stress Dresses Woman: Sex and Gender Differences”. EC Neurology 12.11 (2020): 01-14.

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