Review Article
Volume 12 Issue 12 - 2020
A Dynamic Model Based on Bayesian Inference for Continuous Musical Expectation
Keyvan Yahya*
Chemnitz University of Technology, Chemnitz, Germany
*Corresponding Author: Keyvan Yahya, Chemnitz University of Technology, Chemnitz, Germany.
Received: July 30, 2020; Published: November 28, 2020


This paper aims to give an insight about continuous expectation in music based on a relatively broad range of the relevant literature. After providing a preliminary framework that holds on to the established liaison of music expectation and active inference, we put forth a set of hypothesis that altogether suggest the possibility of a biologically plausible dynamic model that could fully account for the inference of expectations in monophonic music. We also put a special emphasis on the Bayesian theory of music perception that underpins these types of models that could infer what happens next during the successive time windows of a given melody on a basis of prior context or technically speaking, generative models denoted by Σ▒〖P(x│n) 〗 containing a normal distribution and will be updated over time. Finally, in regard with the active actions one must take to infer the hidden parameters of a melody to perform the melodic expectation tasks, we point out to the significance of the concept of m-grams in a more precise and wider building and improvement of the hidden Markov chains representing dynamic expectations. That aside, we will propose that the predictive coding models of monophonic melodies could reveal some certain patterns that would be listened on a regular basis and construct the distinctive quintessence of various local music.

Keywords: Dynamic Model; Bayesian Inference; Continuous Musical Expectation


  1. Rohrmeier MA and Koelsch S. “Predictive information processing in music cognition. A critical review”. International Journal of Psychophysiology 83 (2012): 164-175.
  2. Dennett D. “Consciousness Explained”. Boston, MA: Little, Brown (1991).
  3. Pearce MT Wiggins GA. “The role of expectation and probabilistic learning in auditory boundary perception: A model comparison”. Perception 39 (2010): 1367-1391.
  4. Meyer LB. “Meaning in music and information theory”. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism4 (1957): 412-424.
  5. Pearce MT and Wiggins GA. “Expectation in melody: The influence of context and learning”. Music Perception 23 (2006): 377-405.
  6. Eerola T., et al. “Real-time prediction of melodies: Continuous predictability judgments and dynamic models”. In Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Music Perception and cognition Sydney”. Australia: Causal Productions (2002): 473-476.
  7. Abdallah SA and Plumbley MD. “Polyphonic transcription by non-negative spars coding of power spectra”. In Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Music Information Retrieval (2004).
  8. Krumhansl CL., et al. “Expectation in Finnish spiritual folk hymns: Convergence of statistical, behavioral, and computational approaches”. Music Perception 17 (1999):151-195.
  9. Narmour E. “The Analysis and Cognition of Basic Melodic Structures: The Implication-Realization Model”. Chicago: University of Chicago Press (1990).
  10. Eerola T., et al. “An investigation of pre-schoolers' corporeal synchronization with music”. In Baroni, M., Addessi, A. R., Caterina, R. and Costa, M. ICMPC and ESCOM (2006): 472-476.
  11. Kenji Doya., et al. “Bayesian Brain. Probabilistic Approaches to Neural Coding”. The MIT Press; 1 edition (2007).
  12. Pouget A., et al. “Probabilistic brains: knowns and unknowns”. Nature Neuroscience 16 (2013): 1170-1178.
  13. Temperly D. “A Bayesian Approach to Key-Finding”. In: Proceeding ICMAI '02 Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Music and Artificial Intelligence (2002):195-206.
  14. Temperly D. “Music and Probability”. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press (2007).
  15. Saffran JR., et al. “Statistical learning by 8-month-old infants”. Science 274 (1996): 1926-1928.
  16. Vuust P and Witek MAG. “Rhythmic complexity and predictive coding: a novel approach to modeling rhythm and meter perception in music”. Frontiers in Psychology 5 (2014): 1111.
  17. Abadi AK., et al. “Excitatory versus inhibitory feedback in Bayesian formulations of scene construction”. Journal of the Royal Society Interface154 (2019): 20180344.
  18. Yahya K., et al. “12th Biannual Conference of the German Cognitive Science Society”. Cognitive Processing1 (2014): 107-107.
  19. Saenz M and Langers DRM. “Tonotopic mapping in human auditory cortex”. Hearing Research (2013).
  20. Kumar S., et al. “Predictive Coding and Pitch Processing in the Auditory Cortex”. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 23 (2011): 3084-3094.
  21. Wei JM., et al. “Bayesian inference with probabilistic population codes”. Nature Neuroscience11 (2006): 1432-1438.
Citation: Keyvan Yahya. “A Dynamic Model Based on Bayesian Inference for Continuous Musical Expectation”. EC Neurology 12.12 (2020): 93-98.

PubMed Indexed Article

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777

EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033

EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992

EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505

EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793

EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211

EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047

EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560

EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318

EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819

EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840

EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476

EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658

EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489

EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278

EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108

EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571

EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333

EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883

EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001

EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937

EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723

EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726

EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646

EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226

EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268

News and Events

December Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the December issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

ECronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before December 17, 2021.

Certificate of Publication

ECronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

ECronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.

Immediate Assistance

The prime motto of this team is to clarify all the queries without any delay or hesitation to avoid the inconvenience. For immediate assistance on your queries please don't hesitate to drop an email to