Review Article
Volume 12 Issue 7 - 2020
The Essentials in Deep Brain Stimulation
Sacristán HE1*, Galati AS2 and Canestrari L3
1Department of Neurology, Director of the Teaching and Research Committee, “Anselmo Marini Rehabilitation Institut”, Professor of Neurology School of Medicine University of Morón, Associate Professor of Neurology School of Medicine, UBA, Buenos Aires, Argentina
2Department of Neurosurgery Bernardo Houssay Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery Cosme Argerich Hospital, Buenos Aires, Argentina
3Hospital Teaching Unit, Bernardo Houssay Hospital, Buenos Aires, Argentina
*Corresponding Author: Sacristán HE, Department of Neurology, Director of the Teaching and Research Committee, “Anselmo Marini Rehabilitation Institut”, Professor of Neurology School of Medicine University of Morón, Associate Professor of Neurology School of Medicine, UBA, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Received: May 19, 2020; Published: June 30, 2020




Abstract

Over the last 3 decades, deep brain stimulation (DBS) has become the mayor growth area for the treatment of patients with severe Parkinson disease with motor complications (PD), dystonia and refractory tremors. More recently, interest has begun to focus on the clinical application of DBS to psychiatric disorders, particularly Tourette syndrome (TS), obsessive compulsive disorders (OCD), and depression. In this article, we reviewed seminal and currently ongoing clinical trials that support our field of knowledge in DBS. The increasing therapeutic use of DBS has created opportunities to study the physiology and pathophysiology of these diseases, by allowing intra-cerebral micro electrode recordings (MER) to be made from patients and permitting electrical stimulation of various targets (regions) within the brain to be undertaken. We review the neurophysiological techniques involved in this process and the complex issue of programming the implanted stimulator in order to optimize therapeutic efficacy and minimize stimulation induced adverse effects. This paper is intended to provide an overview of the use of DBS for movement disorders and provide an introduction to the developing area of DBS for psychiatric diseases and covers the varying surgical techniques involved in implanting electrodes into various deep nuclei within the brain. This paper describes how to select appropriate patients for DBS and the results of DBS treatment for PD, dystonia and refractory tremors, as well as psychiatric conditions like TS and OCD; finally, we consider the future of DBS in patients with refractory mayor depression.

Keywords: DBS; Parkinson; Dystonia; Tremor; OCD; Tourette; Depression

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Citation: Sacristán HE., et al. “The Essentials in Deep Brain Stimulation”. EC Neurology 12.7 (2020): 76-90.

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