Review Article
Volume 12 Issue 6 - 2020
Stroke Rehabilitation: A Role for the New Technologies?
Madalena Bettencourt1 and João Casaca-Carreira2*
1Physiotherapist, Insurance Company, Fidelidade, Portugal
2Physiotherapy Department, Portuguese Red Cross Health School, Lisbon and Physiotherapy Department, School of Health, Setúbal Polytechnic Institute, Portugal
*Corresponding Author: João Casaca-Carreira, Physiotherapy Department, Portuguese Red Cross Health School, Lisbon and Physiotherapy Department, School of Health, Setúbal Polytechnic Institute, Portugal.
Received: April 16, 2020; Published: May 15, 2020




Abstract

Background: Stroke is a disease of the central nervous system caused by the reduction or interruption of a vessel on the brain. The prevalence of stroke consequences, not only physical but also psychological and social, tend to increase in the years after stroke, being rehabilitation the most important part of the process. With the emergence of new technologies, stroke rehabilitation benefited from important improvements.

Purpose: The purpose of this study is to understand the role of new interventions on the rehabilitation of stroke patients with hemiplegia and body asymmetry.

Results: Standard therapy, Bobath concept, Induced Constraint Movement Therapy, Mirror Therapy, Force Plate Feedback, Virtual Reality and Robot Therapy are described and the evidence supporting each approach is presented. Based on the studies mentioned above, the new approaches that have been more studied and shown more results are the Virtual Reality and the Robot Therapy.

Conclusion: In summary, these studies reveal that the new therapeutic approaches should be used as a complement of the standard therapy.

Keywords: Stroke; New Technologies; Rehabilitation

References

  1. Lee D., et al. “Asymmetric training using virtual reality reflection equipment and the enhancement of upper limb function in stroke patients: A randomized controlled trial”. Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases 6 (2014): 1319-1326.
  2. Stroke, Cerebrovascular accident. Who, Health Topics.
  3. Tadi P LF. “Acute Stroke (Cerebrovascular Accident)”. Stat Pearls (FL) TI (2020).
  4. Norouzi-Gheidari N., et al. “Effects of robot-assisted therapy on stroke rehabilitation in upper limbs: Systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature”. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development 4 (2012): 479-496.
  5. I Badia SB., et al. “Combining virtual reality and a myoelectric limb orthosis to restore active movement after stroke”. International Journal on Disability and Human Development3 (2014):153-166.
  6. Kauhanen M-L. “Quality of life after stroke: Clinical, functional, psychosocial and cognitive correlates” (1999): 88.
  7. S SDBKCTG. Middle Cerebral Artery Stroke. Med Scape.
  8. Meretoja A., et al. “Trends in treatment and outcome of stroke patients in Finland from 1999 to 2007. PERFECT Stroke, a nationwide register study”. Annals of Medicine (2011): 43.
  9. Högg S., et al. “Upper limb strength training in subacute stroke patients: Study protocol of a randomised controlled trial”. Trials1 (2019): 1-11.
  10. Kim J., et al. “Kinematic analysis of head, trunk, and pelvic motion during mirror therapy for stroke patients”. The Journal of Physical Therapy Science 10 (2017): 1793-1799.
  11. Recovery Stroke (2019).
  12. Díaz-Arribas MJ., et al. “Effectiveness of the Bobath concept in the treatment of stroke: a systematic review”. Disability and Rehabilitation (2019): 1-14.
  13. Levin MF., et al. “Emergence of Virtual Reality as a Tool for Upper Limb Rehabilitation: Incorporation of Motor Control and Motor Learning Principles”. Physical Therapy 3 (2015): 415-425.
  14. Güçlü Gündüz A., et al. “The effects of early neurodevelopmental bobath approach and mobilizatioquadriceps muscle thickness in stroke patients”. Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences 1 (2019): 318-326.
  15. M Rsmll-E. “Bobath Concept - Theory and Clinical Practice in Neurological Rehabilitation”. Blackwell Publishing (2009).
  16. Pumprasart T., et al. “The effect of the Bobath therapy programme on upper limb and hand function in chronic stroke individuals with moderate to severe deficits”. International Journal of Therapy and Rehabilitation 10 (2019).
  17. Taub E and Uswatte G. “Constraint-Induced Movement therapy: Answers and questions after two decades of research”. Neuro Rehabilitation 2 (2006): 93-95.
  18. Morris DM., et al. “Constraint-induced movement therapy: characterizing the intervention protocol”. Europa Medicophysica 3 (2006): 257-268.
  19. Ju Y and Yoon IJ. “The effects of modified constraint-induced movement therapy and mirror therapy on upper extremity function and its influence on activities of daily living”. The Journal of Physical Therapy Science 1 (2018): 77-81.
  20. Barzel A., et al. “Comparison of two types of Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy in chronic stroke patients: A pilot study”. Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience 6 (2009): 673-680.
  21. Szaflarski JP., et al. “Cortical Reorganization Following Modified Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy: A Study of 4 Patients with Chronic Stroke”. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 8 (2006): 1052-1058.
  22. Fuentes MA., et al. “Combined Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation and Virtual Reality-Based Paradigm for Upper Limb Rehabilitation in Individuals with Restricted Movements. A Feasibility Study with a Chronic Stroke Survivor with Severe Hemiparesis”. The Journal of Medical Systems 5 (2018): 87.
  23. Henderson A., et al. “Virtual reality in stroke rehabilitation: A systematic review of its effectiveness for upper limb motor recovery”. Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation 2 (2007): 52-61.
  24. Van Peppen RPS., et al. “Effects of visual feedback therapy on postural control in bilateral standing after stroke: A systematic review”. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine 1 (2006): 3-9.
  25. Hsieh HC. “Use of a Gaming Platform for Balance Training After a Stroke: A Randomized Trial”. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 4 (2019): 591-597.
  26. Barclay-Goddard R., et al. “Force platform feedback for standing balance training after stroke”. Stroke 2 (2005): 412-413.
  27. Silva MG., et al. “Development of a low cost force platform for biomechanical parameters analysis”. Research on Biomedical Engineering 3 (2017): 259-268.
  28. Saposnik G and Levin M. “Virtual reality in stroke rehabilitation: A meta-analysis and implications for clinicians”. Stroke5 (2011): 1380-1386.
  29. Holden MK and Dyar T. “Virtual environment training: A New Tool for Neurorehabilitation”. Reports in Neurological 2 (2002): 62-71.
  30. Tieri G., et al. “Virtual reality in cognitive and motor rehabilitation: facts, fiction and fallaciesv”. Expert Review of Medical Devices 2 (2018): 107-117.
  31. Turolla A., et al. “Virtual reality for the rehabilitation of the upper limb motor function after stroke: A prospective controlled trial”. Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation 1 (2013): 1-9.
  32. Laver KE., et al. “Virtual reality for stroke rehabilitation”. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 11 (2017).
  33. Bryce TN., et al. “Framework for assessment of the usability of lower-extremity robotic exoskeletal orthoses”. American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 11 (2015): 1000-1014.
  34. Kwakkel G., et al. “Effects of robot-assisted therapy on upper limb recovery after stroke: A systematic review”. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair 2 (2008): 111-121.
  35. Lo AC., et al. “Robot-assisted therapy for long-term upper-limb impairment after stroke”. The New England Journal of Medicine 19 (2010): 1772-1783.
  36. Hadjidj A., et al. “Wireless Sensor Networks for Rehabilitation Applications: Challenges and Opportunities”. To cite this version: HAL Id: hal-00762929 Wireless Sensor Networks for Rehabilitation Applications: Challenges and Opportunities (2013).
  37. Yoo DH and Kim SY. “Effects of upper limb robot-assisted therapy in the rehabilitation of stroke patients”. The Journal of Physical Therapy Science 3 (2015): 677-679.
  38. Uivarosan D., et al. “Effects of combining modern recovery techniques with neurotrophic medication and standard treatment in stroke patients”. Science of the Total Environment 679 (2019): 80-87.
  39. Todd H Wagner., et al. “An Economic Analysis of Robot-Assisted Therapy for Long Term Upper-Limb Impairment After Stroke”. Stroke9 (2011): 2630-2632.
Citation: Madalena Bettencourt and João Casaca-Carreira. “Stroke Rehabilitation: A Role for the New Technologies?”. EC Neurology 12.6 (2020): 33-39.

PubMed Indexed Article


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777


EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033


EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992


EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505


EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793


EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211


EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047


EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560


EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318


EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819


EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840


EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476


EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658


EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489


EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278


EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108


EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571


EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333


EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883


EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001


EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937


EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723


EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726


EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646


EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226


EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268


News and Events


May Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the May issue of respective journals and can be viewed in the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for July Issue

Ecronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the June issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before June 11, 2020.

Certificate of Publication

Ecronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

Ecronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.

Immediate Assistance

The prime motto of this team is to clarify all the queries without any delay or hesitation to avoid the inconvenience. For immediate assistance on your queries please don't hesitate to drop an email to editor@ecronicon.uk