Research Article
Volume 12 Issue 6 - 2020
A Comparison of the Clinical Effectiveness of Specific Neurostimulation and Photobiomodulation Modalities with Therapeutic Nutrition in the Treatment of Peripheral Neuropathy
John Hayes Jr1,2, Shannon Boyce1 and Nicholas A Kerna3*
1NeuropathyDR®, USA
2University of Science, Arts and Technology, Montserrat, USA
3SMC–Medical Research, Thailand
*Corresponding Author: Nicholas A Kerna, POB47 Phatphong, Suriwongse Road, Bangkok, Thailand 10500.
Received: April 19, 2020; Published: May 13, 2020


Peripheral neuropathy (PN) is a severe condition with numerous comorbidities. Approximately 4% of adults and the elderly develop polyneuropathy of various etiologies. The incidence of PN likely increases with age and multiple facets of declining health. Many pharmacological agents are inadequate in treating PN, and some have significant side effects. Thus, other treatment options, methods, and modalities to treat PN should be advanced and explored. This retrospective study reports a comparison of the clinical effectiveness of specific neurostimulation and photomodulation (low-level laser therapy) modalities with therapeutic nutrition in the treatment of the symptoms of PN. Most participants reported some level of symptom relief with each of the treatment components, while neurostimulation provided nearly universal relief of all PN symptoms in the participants surveyed.

Keywords: Low-Level Laser; Neurostimulation; Peripheral Neuropathy; Photobiomodulation; Therapeutic Nutrition


  1. Griebeler ML., et al. “Pharmacologic interventions for painful diabetic neuropathy: An umbrella systematic review and comparative effectiveness network meta-analysis”. Annals of Internal Medicine 9 (2014): 639-649.
  2. Klein SE., et al. “Evaluation of peripheral neuropathy of unknown origin in an outpatient foot and ankle practice”. Foot and Ankle International 9 (2015): 1058-1063.
  3. Hanewinckel R., et al. “Prevalence of polyneuropathy in the general middle-aged and elderly population”. Neurology18 (2016): 1892-1898.
  4. Suzuki M. “Peripheral neuropathy in the elderly”. The Handbook of Clinical Neurology 115 (2013): 803-813.
  5. Griebeler ML., et al. “Pharmacologic interventions for painful diabetic neuropathy: An umbrella systematic review and comparative effectiveness network meta-analysis”. Annals of Internal Medicine 9 (2014): 639-649.
  6. Rudroju N., et al. “Comparative efficacy and safety of six antidepressants and anticonvulsants in painful diabetic neuropathy: a network meta-analysis”. Pain Physician6 (2013): E705-E714.
  7. Alabdali M., et al. “Choosing drugs for the treatment of diabetic neuropathy”. Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy 12 (2015): 1805-1814.
  8. Kuo KL., et al. “Single-versus multiple-drug pharmacotherapy in the management of diabetic painful neuropathy”. Journal of Pain and Palliative Care Pharmacotherapy 3 (2016): 184-194.
  9. Hanewinckel R., et al. “Peripheral neuropathies”. The Handbook of Clinical Neurology 138 (2016): 263-282.
  10. Singh R., et al. “Diabetic peripheral neuropathy: current perspective and future directions”. Pharmacological Research 80 (2014): 21-35.
  11. Callaghan B and Feldman E. “The metabolic syndrome and neuropathy: therapeutic challenges and opportunities”. Annals of Neurology 3 (2013): 397-403.
  12. Lei Q., et al. “Statins in nervous system-associated diseases: angels or devils?” Pharmazie6 (2014): 448-454.
  13. Hershman DL., et al. “Prevention and management of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy in survivors of adult cancers: American Society of Clinical Oncology clinical practice guideline”. Journal of Clinical Oncology 18 (2014): 1941-1967.
  14. Cohen JS. “Peripheral neuropathy associated with fluoroquinolones”. Annals of Pharmacotherapy 12 (2001): 1540-1547.
  15. Hedenmalm K and Spigset O. “Peripheral sensory disturbances related to treatment with fluoroquinolones”. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 4 (1996): 831-837.
  16. Singh J., et al. “Acute onset sensory polyneuropathy due to metronidazole therapy”. The Journal of the Association of Physicians of India 9 (2015): 87-88.
  17. Park KI., et al. “Metronidazole neurotoxicity: sequential neuroaxis involvement”. Neurology India 1 (2011): 104-107.
  18. Wang CZ., et al. “Low-level laser irradiation improves functional recovery and nerve regeneration in sciatic nerve crush rat injury model”. PLoS One8 (2014): e103348.
  19. Abdel-Wahhab KG., et al. “Efficiencies of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) and gabapentin in the management of peripheral neuropathy: diabetic neuropathy”. Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry 1 (2018): 161-173.
  20. Bunner AE., et al. “A dietary intervention for chronic diabetic neuropathy pain: a randomized controlled pilot study”. Diabetes Nutrition 5 (2015): e158.
  21. Farvid MS., et al. “Improving neuropathy scores in type 2 diabetic patients using micronutrients supplementation”. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 1 (2011): 86-94.
  22. Wager TD., et al. “An fMRIbased neurologic signature of physical pain”. The New England Journal of Medicine 15 (2013): 1388-1397.
  23. Thakral G., et al. “Electrical stimulation as an adjunctive treatment of painful and sensory diabetic neuropathy”. Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology 5 (2013):1202-1209.
  24. Mekhail NA., et al. “Clinical applications of neurostimulation: forty years later”. Pain Practice 2 (2010): 103-112.
Citation: Nicholas A Kerna., et al. “A Comparison of the Clinical Effectiveness of Specific Neurostimulation and Photobiomodulation Modalities with Therapeutic Nutrition in the Treatment of Peripheral Neuropathy”. EC Neurology 12.6 (2020): 13-26.

PubMed Indexed Article

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777

EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033

EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992

EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505

EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793

EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211

EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047

EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560

EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318

EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819

EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840

EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476

EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658

EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489

EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278

EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108

EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571

EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333

EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883

EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001

EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937

EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723

EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726

EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646

EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226

EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268

News and Events

September Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the September issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

ECronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before October 14, 2022.

Certificate of Publication

ECronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

ECronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.