Mini Review
Volume 12 Issue 5 - 2020
A Brief View of the Central Nervous System with a Focus on Synaptic and Extrasynaptic Transmission
Susumu Ito1* and Katsuhiko Hata1,2,3
1High-Tech Research Centre, Kokushikan University, Tokyo, Japan
2Department of Neuroscience, Research Centre for Mathematical Medicine, Japan
3Department of Sport and Medical Science, Kokushikan University, Tokyo, Japan
*Corresponding Author: Susumu Ito, High-Tech Research Centre, Kokushikan University, Tokyo, Japan.
Received: March 06, 2020; Published: April 21, 2020




Abstract

Information transmission in the central nervous system (CNS) is usually thought to consist of a network neurons connected by excitatory and inhibitory synapses. It has been, however, also known the existence of receptors at the extrasynaptic position and non-synaptic release of neurotransmitters and the importance of the role of extrasynaptic signalling has become gradually apparent in recent years. Receptors used in extrasynaptic transmission are mainly metabotropic types except GABA and NMDA receptors and usually cause slow but lasting effects. Extrasynaptic information transmission modifies the efficiency of the synaptic transmission, regulates excitability in certain areas of the CNS and participates in exchanging information with non-neuronal cells. It has been shown to be involved in long-term potentiation and long-term depression, and also in the formation of neural networks during development. Many of the CNS toxicants and therapeutics are thought to work through extrasynaptic receptors. Neurological disorders such as autism and Alzheimer's disease have also been known to be linked to extrasynaptic signalling. The elucidation of the function of extrasynaptic signalling systems will become increasingly important.

Keywords: Tonic Modulator; Volume Transmission; Metabotropic Receptor; NMDA Receptor; GABAA Receptor

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Citation: Susumu Ito and Katsuhiko Hata. “A Brief View of the Central Nervous System with a Focus on Synaptic and Extrasynaptic Transmission”. EC Neurology 12.5 (2020): 54-60.

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