Review Article
Volume 12 Issue 4 - 2020
Sleep Wake Disorder after Traumatic Brain Injury-A Comprehensive Update
Rajib Dutta*
MD Neurology, India
*Corresponding Author: Rajib Dutta, MD Neurology, India..
Received: February 18, 2020; Published: March 27, 2020


Sleep plays an integral role in several physiologic functions such as cognition and functional ability of an individual. Sleep-wake disturbances are frequent after traumatic brain injury(TBI).More than 50% of TBI patients suffer from sleep wake disorders. The pathophysiology remains unclear; however, it can interfere with rehabilitation and recovery leading to poor neurobehavioral outcome. Nonpharmacological and pharmacological treatment exists with variable outcomes. This review will focus on sleep wake disorders, pathophysiology, treatment options, prognosis and outcome in terms of cognition and quality of life in this subset population who had TBI in the past or recovering from it.

Keywords: Sleep; Sleep-Wake Disorder; Post Traumatic Brain Injury; Pathophysiology; Treatment


  1. Feigin VLV., et al. “Incidence of traumatic brain injury in New Zealand: a population-based study”. The Lancet Neurology 12 (2013): 53-64.
  2. Ermis U., et al. “Arousal thresholds during human tonic and phasic REM sleep”. Journal of Sleep Research 19.3 (2010): 400-406.
  3. Fink AM., et al. “Autonomic regulation during sleep and wakefulness: a review with implications for defining the pathophysiology of neurological disorders”. Clinical Autonomic Research 28.6 (2018): 509-518.
  4. Morris CJ., et al. “Circadian system, sleep and endocrinology”. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 349.1 (2012): 91-104.
  5. Zant JC., et al. “Cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain promote wakefulness by actions on neighboring non-cholinergic neurons:an opto-dialysis study”. Journal of Neuroscience 36.6 (2016): 2057-2067.
  6. Ouellet MC., et al. “Insomnia following traumatic brain injury: a review”. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair 18 (2004): 187-198.
  7. Duclos C., et al. “Rest-activity cycle disturbances in the acute phase of moderate to severe traumatic brain injury”. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair 28 (2013): 472-482.
  8. Wiseman-Hakes C., et al. “Sleep and wake disorders following traumatic brain injury: a systematic review of the literature”. Critical Reviews in Physical Rehabilitation Medicine 21 (2009): 317-374.
  9. Gilbert KS., et al. “Sleep disturbances, TBI and PTSD: Implications for treatment and recovery”. Clinical Psychology Review 40 (2015): 195-212.
  10. Duclos C., et al. “Evolution of severe sleep-wake cycle disturbances following traumatic brain injury: a case study in both acute and subacute phases post-injury”. BMC Neurology 16.1 (2016): 186.
  11. Young JS., et al. “Sleep in hospitalized medical patients, part 1: factors affecting sleep”. The Journal of Hospital Medicine 3.6 (2008): 473-482.
  12. Lamond N., et al. “Factors predicting sleep disruption in Type II diabetes”. Sleep 23.3 (2000): 415-416.
  13. Sandsmark DK., et al. “Sleep-Wake Disturbances After Traumatic Brain Injury: Synthesis of Human and Animal Studies”. Sleep 40.5 (2017).
  14. Miranda M Lim., et al. “Sleep-wake disorders in patients with traumatic brain injury” (2019).
  15. Christian R Baumann., et al. “Sleep-wake disturbances 6 months after traumatic brain injury: a prospective study”. Brain 130 (2007): 1873-1883.
  16. Harding EC., et al. “The Temperature Dependence of Sleep”. Frontiers in Neuroscience 13 (2019): 336.
  17. Horner RL and Peever JH. “Brain circuitry controlling sleep and wakefulness”. Continuum 23.4 (2017): 955-972.
  18. Valko PO., et al. “Damage to histaminergic tuberomammillary neurons and other hypothalamic neurons with traumatic brain injury”. Annals of Neurology 77 (2015): 177-182.
  19. Shekleton JA., et al. “Sleep disturbance and melatonin levels following traumatic brain injury”. Neurology 74 (2010): 1732-1738.
  20. Raissa Aoun., et al. “Impact of traumatic brain injury on sleep: an overview”. Nature and Science of Sleep 11 (2019): 131-140.
  21. Baumann CR., et al. “Hypocretin-1 (orexin A) deficiency in acute traumatic brain injury”. Neurology 65 (2005): 147-149.
  22. Roman A., et al. “The inappropriate occurrence of rapid eye movement sleep in narcolepsy is not due to a defect in homeostatic regulation of rapid eye movement sleep”. Sleep 41.6 (2018):10.
  23. Nardone R., et al. “Cortical excitability changes in patients with sleep-wake disturbances after traumatic brain injury”. The Journal of Neurotrauma 28 (2011): 1165-1171.
  24. Gool JK., et al. “Widespread white matter connectivity abnormalities in narcolepsy type 1: A diffusion tensor imaging study”. NeuroImage: Clinical 24 (2019):101963. 
  25. Kang JMK., et al. “Low white-matter integrity between the left thalamus and inferior frontal gyrus in patients with insomnia disorder”. The Journal of Psychiatry and Neuroscience 43.6 (2018): 366-374.
  26. Yaeger K., et al. “Evaluation of tentorial length and angle in sleep-wake disturbances after mild traumatic brain injury”. American Journal of Roentgenology 202 (2014): 614-618.
  27. Verma A., et al. “Sleep disorders in chronic traumatic brain injury”. The Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine 3 (2007): 357-362.
  28. Modarres MH., et al. “EEG slow waves in traumatic brain injury: Convergent findings in mouse and man”. Neurobiology of Sleep and Circadian Rhythms 2 (2016): 59-70.
  29. Rao V., et al. “Sleep disturbance after mild traumatic brain injury: Indicator of injury?” The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 23 (2011): 201-205. 
  30. Mollayeva T., et al. “Self- report instruments for assessing sleep dysfunction in an adult traumatic brain injury population: a systematic review”. Sleep Medicine Reviews 17 (2013): 411-423.
  31. Ouellet MC and Morin CM. “Subjective and objective measures of insomnia in the context of traumatic brain injury: a preliminary study”. Sleep Medicine 7.6 (2006): 486-497.
  32. Williams BR., et al. “Polysomnographic and quantitative EEG analysis of subjects with long-term insomnia complaints associated with mild traumatic brain injury”. Clinical Neurophysiology 119.2 (2008): 429-438.
  33. Imbach LL., et al. “Increased sleep need and daytime sleepiness 6 months after traumatic brain injury: a prospective controlled clinical trial”. Brain 138 (2015): 726-735.
  34. Baumann CR., et al. “Sleep-wake disturbances 6 months after traumatic brain injury: a prospective study”. Brain 130 (2007): 1873-1883.
  35. Sommerauer M., et al. “Excessive sleep need following traumatic brain injury: a case- control study of 36 patients”. Journal of Sleep Research 22 (2013): 634-639.
  36. Noain D., et al. “Increased Sleep Need and Reduction of Tuberomammillary Histamine Neurons after Rodent Traumatic Brain Injury”. Journal of Neurotrauma 35.1 (2018): 85-93.
  37. American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM). The international classification of sleep disorders. 3rd edition. Darien (IL): American Academy of Sleep Medicine (2014).
  38. Masel BE., et al. “Excessive daytime sleepiness in adults with brain injuries”. The Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 82 (2001): 1526-1532.
  39. Guilleminault C., et al. “Hypersomnia after head-neck trauma: a medicolegal dilemma”. Neurology 54 (2000): 653-659.
  40. Imbach LL., et al. “Sleep-wake disorders persist 18 months after traumatic brain injury but remain underrecognized”. Neurology 86.21 (2016): 1945-1949.
  41. Watson NF., et al. “Hypersomnia following traumatic brain injury”. The Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine 3 (2007): 363-368.
  42. Castriotta RJ and Murthy JN. “Sleep disorders in patients with traumatic brain injury: a review”. CNS Drugs 25 (2011):175-185.
  43. Wang S., et al. “Psychiatric symptoms and their association with sleep disturbances in intensive care unit survivors”. The International Journal of General Medicine 12 (2019): 125-130.
  44. Botchway EN., et al. “Outcomes of Subjective Sleep-Wake Disturbances Twenty Years after Traumatic Brain Injury in Childhood”. The Journal of Neurotrauma 36.5 (2019): 669-678.
  45. Sharma R., et al. “Severe and protracted sleep disruptions in mouse model of post-traumatic stress disorder”. Sleep 41.3 (2018):10.
  46. Jang SH and Kwon HG. “Aggravation of excessive daytime sleepiness concurrent with aggravation of an injured ascending reticular activating system in a patient with mild traumatic brain injury: A case report”. Medicine 96.4 (2017): e5958. 
  47. Thomasy HE., et al. “Hypocretinergic and cholinergic contributions to sleep-wake disturbances in a mouse model of traumatic brain injury”. Neurobiology of Sleep and Circadian Rhythms 2 (2016): 71-84. 
  48. Kaiser PR., et al. “Modafinil ameliorates excessive daytime sleepiness after traumatic brain injury”. Neurology 75 (2010):1780-1785.
  49. Jha A., et al. “A randomized trial of modafinil for the treatment of fatigue and excessive daytime sleepiness in individuals withchronic traumatic brain injury”. The Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation 23(2008): 52-63.
  50. Menn SJ., et al. “Armodafinil for the treatment of excessive sleepiness associated with mild or moderate closed traumatic brain injury: a 12-week, randomized, double-blind study followed by a 12-month open-label extension”. The Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine 10 (2014): 1181-1191.
  51. Sinclair KL., et al. “Randomized controlled trial of light therapy for fatigue following traumatic brain injury”. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair 28 (2014): 303-313.
  52. Zeitzer JM., et al. “Insomnia in the context of traumatic brain injury”. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development 46 (2009): 827-836.
  53. Hou L., et al. “Risk Factors Associated with Sleep Disturbance following Traumatic Brain Injury: Clinical Findings and Questionnaire Based Study”. PLoS ONE 8.10 (2013): e76087. 
  54. Valko PO and Baumann CR. Sleep disorders after traumatic brain injury””. In: Kryger MH, Roth T, Dement WC, editors. Principles and practice in sleep medicine. 6th edition. Philadelphia: Elsevier (2016): 959-968.
  55. Punjwani S., et al. “Psychological distress and its associated factors among informal care givers of disabled young adults with traumatic brain injuries”. The Journal of Pakistan Medical Association 70.1-2 (2020): S15-S19.
  56. Johnson KA., et al. “Somatic symptoms are associated with Insomnia disorder but not Obstructive Sleep Apnoea or Hypersomnolence in traumatic brain injury”. NeuroRehabilitation 45.3 (2019): 409-418. 
  57. Tang H., et al. “Neurophysiology and Treatment of Disorders of Consciousness Induced by Traumatic Brain Injury: Orexin Signaling as a Potential Therapeutic Target”. Current Pharmaceutical Design 25.39 (2019): 4208-4220.
  58. Lequerica AH., et al. “Factors associated with the remission of insomnia after traumatic brain injury: a traumatic brain injury model systems study”. Brain Injury 34.2 (2020): 187-194.
  59. Moore T., et al. “Acceptability, feasibility, and usability of a manualized cognitive behavioural programme for treatment of insomnia in children who sustained traumatic brain injury: A service providers' perspective”. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation (2020): 1-18.
  60. Ford ME., et al. “Non-pharmacological treatment for insomnia following acquired brain injury: A systematic review”. Sleep Medicine Reviews 50 (2019): 101255.
  61. National Institutes of Health. “National Institutes of Health state of the science conference statement on manifestations and management of chronic insomnia in adults”. Sleep 28 (2005): 1049-1057.
  62. Worthington AD and Melia Y. “Rehabilitation is compromised by arousal and sleep disorders: results of a survey of rehabilitation centres”. Brain Injury 20 (2006): 327-332.
  63. Ayalon L., et al. “Circadian rhythm sleep disorders following mild traumatic brain injury”. Neurology 68 (2007): 1136-1140.
  64. Quinto C., et al. “Posttraumatic delayed sleep phase syndrome”. Neurology 54 (2000): 250-252.
  65. Boivin DB., et al. “Non 24- hour sleep- wake syndrome following a car accident”. Neurology 60 (2003): 1841-1843.
  66. Zhanfeng N., et al. “The Regulation of Circadian Clock Genes on Sleep Disorders in Traumatic Brain Injury Patients”. World Neurosurgery (2019).
  67. Wickwire EM., et al. “Sleep, Sleep Disorders, and Circadian Health following Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in Adults: Review and Research Agenda”. The Journal of Neurotrauma 35.22 (2018): 2615-2631.
  68. Grima NA., et al. “Circadian Melatonin Rhythm Following Traumatic Brain Injury”. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair 30.10 (2016): 972-977.
  69. Hong CT., et al. “PERIOD3 polymorphism is associated with sleep quality recovery after a mild traumatic brain injury”. Journal of the Neurological Sciences 358.1-2 (2015): 385-389.
  70. Nakase-Richardson R., et al. “Concordance Between Current AASM and CMS Scoring Criteria for Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Hospitalized Persons With TBI: A VA TBI Model System Study”. The Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine (2020).
  71. Jennifer S., et al. “Sleep Disturbances among Older Adults Following Traumatic Brain Injury”. The International Review of Psychiatry 32.1 (2020): 31-38.
  72. Caldwell JA., et al. “The association of insomnia and sleep apnea with deployment and combat exposure in the entire population of US army soldiers from 1997 to 2011: a retrospective cohort investigation”. Sleep 42.8 (2019).
  73. Walker JM., et al. “Sleep assessment in a randomized trial of hyperbaric oxygen in U.S. service members with post concussive mild traumatic brain injury compared to normal controls”. Sleep Medicine 51 (2018): 66-79.
  74. Walker JM., et al. “Sleep assessments for a mild traumatic brain injury trial in a military population”. The Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society 43.5 (2016): 549-566.
  75. Webster JB., et al. “Sleep apnea in adults with traumatic brain injury: a preliminary investigation”. The Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 82 (2001): 316-321.
  76. Hillman D., et al. “The economic cost of inadequate sleep”. Sleep 41.8 (2018):10. 
  77. Wilde MC., et al. “Cognitive impairment in patients with traumatic brain injury and obstructive sleep apnea”. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 88.10 (2007): 1284-1288.
  78. Weaver TE., et al. “Relationship between hours of CPAP use and achieving normal levels of sleepiness and daily functioning”. Sleep 30.6 (2007): 711-719.
  79. Raj R and Hirshkowitz M. “Effect of the new Medicare guideline on patient qualification for positive airway pressure therapy”. Sleep medicine 4.1 (2003): 29-33.
  80. Kaufman Y., et al. “Long-term sleep disturbances in adolescents after minor head injury”. Pediatric Neurology 24.2 (2001): 129-134.
  81. Mysliwiec V., et al. “Trauma associated sleep disorder: a proposed parasomnia encompassing disruptive nocturnal behaviors, nightmares, and REM without atonia in trauma survivors”. The Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine 10.10 (2014): 1143-1148.
  82. Morin CM., et al. “Psychological and behavioral treatment of insomnia: update of the recent evidence (1998-2004)”. Sleep 29 (2006): 1398-1414.
  83. Zollman FS., et al. “Acupuncture for treatment of insomnia in patients with traumatic brain injury: a pilot intervention study”. The Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation 27 (2012): 135-142.
  84. Castriotta RJ., et al. “Treatment of sleep disorders after traumatic brain injury”. The Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine 5 (2009): 137-144.
  85. Kemp S., et al. “The value of melatonin for sleep disorders occurring post-head injury: a pilot RCT”. Brain Injury 18 (2004): 911-919.
  86. Ruff RL., et al. “For veterans with mild traumatic brain injury, improved posttraumatic stress disorder severity and sleep correlated with symptomatic improvement”. The Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development 49 (2012): 1305-1320.
  87. Lee H., et al. “Comparing effects of methylphenidate, sertraline and placebo on neuropsychiatric sequelae in patients with traumatic brain injury”. Human Psychopharmacology 20 (2005): 97-104.
  88. Margarita Oks and Sanjeev V Kothare. “Steroids: A Wake-Up Call in TBI Induced Hypersomnolence”. The Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine 15.7 (2019): 1063-1065.
  89. Alphonsa Thomas and Brian D Greenwald. “Nonpharmacological management of sleep disturbances after traumatic brain injury”. NeuroRehabilitation 43 (2018): 355-360.
  90. Driver S and Stork R. “Pharmacological management of sleep after traumatic brain injury”. NeuroRehabilitation 43.3 (2018): 347-353.
  91. Makley MJ., et al. “Optimized Sleep After Brain Injury (OSABI): A Pilot Study of a Sleep Hygiene Intervention for Individuals with Moderate to Severe Traumatic Brain Injury”. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair 34.2 (2020): 111-121.
  92. Piantino J., et al. “Linking Traumatic Brain Injury, Sleep Disruption and Post-Traumatic Headache: a Potential Role for Glymphatic Pathway Dysfunction”. Current Pain and Headache Reports 23.9 (2019): 62.
  93. Gorgoraptis N., et al. “Cognitive impairment and health-related quality of life following traumatic brain injury”. NeuroRehabilitation 44.3 (2019): 321-331.
  94. Makley MJ., et al. “Objective measures of sleep and wakefulness in patients with moderate to severe brain injury on an inpatient rehabilitation unit. Pearls and pitfalls of actigraph monitoring”. NeuroRehabilitation 43.3 (2018): 277-285.
  95. Cronin H and O'Loughlin E. “Sleep and fatigue after TBI”. NeuroRehabilitation 43.3 (2018): 307-317.
  96. Howell S and Griesbach GS. “The interplay between neuroendocrine and sleep alterations following traumatic brain injury”. NeuroRehabilitation 43.3 (2018): 327-345.
Citation: Rajib Dutta. “Sleep Wake Disorder after Traumatic Brain Injury-A Comprehensive Update”. EC Neurology 12.4 (2020): 59-68.

PubMed Indexed Article

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777

EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033

EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992

EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505

EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793

EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211

EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047

EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560

EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318

EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819

EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840

EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476

EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658

EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489

EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278

EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108

EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571

EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333

EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883

EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001

EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937

EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723

EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726

EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646

EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226

EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268

News and Events

December Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the December issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

ECronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before December 20, 2021.

Certificate of Publication

ECronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

ECronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.

Immediate Assistance

The prime motto of this team is to clarify all the queries without any delay or hesitation to avoid the inconvenience. For immediate assistance on your queries please don't hesitate to drop an email to