Mini Review
Volume 12 Issue 5 - 2020
Role of Plasma and CSF PGDS Levels in Neurological Disease-Update of all Literatures Till Date
Rajib Dutta*
MD Neurology, India
*Corresponding Author: Rajib Dutta, MD Neurology, India.
Received: March 09, 2020; Published: April 29, 2020


Prostaglandin D2 (or PGD2) is a prostaglandin that binds to the receptor PTGDR (DP1), as well as CRTH2 (DP2). It is a major prostaglandin produced by mast cells - recruits Th2 cells, eosinophils and basophils. In mammalian organs, large amounts of PGD2 are found only in the brain and in mast cells. PGDS, mainly L and H are responsible for PGD2 synthesis. PGD2 has many important physiological function in our body and serous fluid levels of PGDS (prostaglandin D synthase) are being linked to renal failure, allergic asthma etc. Plasma and CSF levels of PGDS are being studied in sleep disorders like obstructive sleep apnea and narcolepsy and various neurological diseases like Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD), severe traumatic brain injury, autistic spectrum disorder etc. Here in this review article role of plasma and CSF PGDS levels in neurological disease has been discussed with maximum focus on published literatures till date.

Keywords: Prostaglandins; PGD2; PGDS; Neurology


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  2. Mizoguchi A., et al. “Dominant localization of prostaglandin D receptors on arachnoid trabecular cells in mouse basal forebrain and their involvement in the regulation of non-rapid eye movement sleep”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 98.20 (2001): 11674-11679. 
  3. Urade Y and Hayaishi O. “Prostaglandin D2 and sleep/wake regulation”. Sleep Medicine Reviews 15.6 (2011): 411-418. 
  4. Cherasse Y., et al. “The Leptomeninges Produce Prostaglandin D2 Involved in Sleep Regulation in Mice”. Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience 12 (2018): 357. 
  5. Qu WM., et al. “Lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase produces prostaglandin D2 involved in regulation of physiological sleep”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 103.47 (2006): 17949-17954. 
  6. Chihara Y., et al. “A urine biomarker for severe obstructive sleep apnoea patients: lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase”. European Respiratory Journal 42.6 (2013): 1563-1574. 
  7. Bassetti CL., et al. “CSF prostaglandin D synthase is reduced in excessive daytime sleepiness”. Journal of Neurology 253.8 (2006): 1030-1033. 
  8. Jordan W., et al. “Narcolepsy increased L-PGDS (beta-trace) levels correlate with excessive daytime sleepiness but not with cataplexy”. Journal of Neurology 252.11 (2005): 1372-1378. 
  9. Suzuki K., et al. “Plasma prostaglandin D2 synthase levels in sleep and neurological diseases”. Journal of the Neurological Sciences 411 (2020): 116692. 
  10. Mohri I., et al. “Hematopoietic prostaglandin D synthase and DP1 receptor are selectively upregulated in microglia and astrocytes within senile plaques from human patients and in a mouse model of Alzheimer disease”. Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology 66.6 (2007): 469-480. 
  11. Jandl K and Heinemann A. “The therapeutic potential of CRTH2/DP2 beyond allergy and asthma”. Prostaglandins and Other Lipid Mediators 133 (2017): 42-48. 
  12. Biringer RG. “The Role of Eicosanoids in Alzheimer's Disease”. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 16.14 (2019): 2560. 
  13. Rajagopal MU., et al. “Proteomic profiling of cerebrospinal fluid identifies prostaglandin D2 synthase as a putative biomarker for pediatric medulloblastoma: A pediatric brain tumor consortium study”. Proteomics 11.5 (2011): 935-943. 
  14. Chen M., et al. “Discovery of novel plasma biomarker ratios to discriminate traumatic brain injury”. F1000 Research 8 (2019): 1695. 
  15. Hamed NO., et al. “Determination of neuroinflammatory biomarkers in autistic and neurotypical Saudi children”. Metabolic Brain Disease 34.4 (2019): 1049-1060. 
  16. Bradley-Whitman MA., et al. “A Novel Plasma Based Biomarker of Alzheimer's Disease”. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease 47.3 (2015): 761-771. 
  17. Trimarco A., et al. “Prostaglandin D2 synthase/GPR44: a signaling axis in PNS myelination”. Nature Neuroscience 17.12 (2014): 1682-1692. 
  18. Maesaka JK., et al. “Prostaglandin D2 synthase: Apoptotic factor in alzheimer plasma, inducer of reactive oxygen species, inflammatory cytokines and dialysis dementia”. Journal of Nephropathology 2.3 (2013): 166-180. 
  19. Argüelles S., et al. “Use of haptoglobin and transthyretin as potential biomarkers for the preclinical diagnosis of Parkinson's disease”. Neurochemistry International 57.3 (2010): 227-234. 
  20. Pérez-Nievas BG., et al. “Corticosterone basal levels and vulnerability to LPS-induced neuroinflammation in the rat brain”. Brain Research 1315 (2010): 159-168. 
  21. Jordan W., et al. “Prostaglandin D synthase (beta-trace) in healthy human sleep”. Sleep 27.5 (2004): 867-874. 
  22. Urade Y and Hayaishi O. “Biochemical, structural, genetic, physiological, and pathophysiological features of lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase”. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1482.1-2 (2000): 259-271. 
  23. Urade Y and Hayaishi O. “Prostaglandin D synthase: structure and function”. Vitamins and Hormones 58 (2000): 89-120. 
Citation: Rajib Dutta. “Role of Plasma and CSF PGDS Levels in Neurological Disease-Update of all Literatures Till Date”. EC Neurology 12.5 (2020): 42-45.

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