Research Article
Volume 12 Issue 3 - 2020
Clinical and Neuroimaging Study of Thirty Three Patients with Vascular Dementia in Neurological, Psychiatric and Cardiovascular Diseases Exhibiting Microangiopathy and Leukoencephalopathy
Orlando J Castejón1*, Carrero González CM1, Lastre-Amell G1, Leal J2, Galindez P2, Sierra Carrero LL3 and Salones de Castejón M4
1Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Simón Bolívar, Barranquilla, Colombia
2Instituto de Investigaciones Biológicas “Drs. Orlando Castejón and Haydee Viloria de Castejón”, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad del Zulia, Venezuela
3Facultad de Medicina, Universidad del Norte, Barranquilla, Colombia
4Programa de Medicina, e Instituto de Neurociencias Clínicas, Fundación Castejón, Hogar Clínica San Rafael, Maracaibo, Venezuela
*Corresponding Author:Orlando J Castejón, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Simón Bolívar, Barranquilla, Colombia.
Received: January 31, 2020; Published:February 26, 2020




Abstract

We examine thirty three patients with vascular dementia or cerebral small vessel disease, and NMR images of microangiopathy and leukoencephalopathy in patients with high blood pressure, Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, Epilepsy, Stroke, Trigeminal neuralgia, Migraine, Diabetes, and Depression. Some of these patients showed the following symptoms: cervicalgia, language disturbances, sleep disorder, loss of short and long term memory (implicit and explicit memory), aggression, crisis of hyperexcitability, sleep, appetite and recognition disorders, headache, sinus arrhythmia, tonic-clonic convulsive syndrome with aura, visual and auditive hallucinations, temporo-spatial disorientation, impaired balance and muscle weakness, gait disorders as onward and slow march, persecution delusions, mood disorders, tachylalia, mutism, wandering, spasticity of lower limbs and loss of sphincter control or constipation. We found the following neuropathological changes: leukoaraiosis in one case, microangiopathy and arteriosclerotic leukoencephalopathy in 23 cases. Some patients exhibit subcortical white matter hyperintensive focus, ventriculomegaly, areas de encephalomalacia related with previous strokes, cortical atrophy and cortical calcifications, granulomatous in nature. We observed the following interactions leading to vascular dementia: Alzheimer disease and migraine (Alzheimer mixed dementia), migraine and Parkinson disease, Stroke and high blood pressure, stroke and migraine, epilepsy and high blood pressure.

Keywords: Microangiopathy; Leukoencephalopathy; Vascular Dementia; Small Vessel Disease

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Citation: Orlando J Castejón., et al. “Clinical and Neuroimaging Study of Thirty Three Patients with Vascular Dementia in Neurological, Psychiatric and Cardiovascular Diseases Exhibiting Microangiopathy and Leukoencephalopathy”. EC Neurology 12.3 (2020): 01-13.

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