Review Article
Volume 12 Issue 3 - 2020
Altered Brain Cholesterol Metabolism is Related to Disease Severity, Neurodegeneration and Atrophy in AD
Rajib Dutta*
MD Neurology,India
*Corresponding Author: MD Neurology,India.
Received: February 13, 2020; Published: February 24, 2020


Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most progressive neurodegenerative disorder of the aging population after Parkinson’s disease (PD). The pathogenesis of AD is complex and obscure till date. Recent epidemiological and molecular studies have linked the disruption of cholesterol homeostasis to increased risk for developing AD. Oxysterols are oxidized derivatives of cholesterol that are formed enzymatically or via reactive oxygen species or both. Oxysterol levels are implicated in the pathogenesis of numerous neurodegenerative diseases like AD, PD, Huntington’s disease(HD), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Multiple sclerosis (MS). The blood brain barrier (BBB) effectively prevents uptake of lipoprotein-bound cholesterol from blood circulation. Here the relationship between alterations in brain cholesterol metabolism and AD pathogenesis is reviewed.

Keywords: Brain Cholesterol; Oxysterol; Homeostasis; Neurodegeneration; Alzheimer’s Disease


  1. Gamba P., et al. “The link between altered cholesterol metabolism andAlzheimer’s disease”. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1259 (2012): 54‐64. 
  2. Querfurth HW and La Ferla FM. “Alzheimer’s disease”. The New England Journal of Medicine 362 (2010): 329‐344. 
  3. Mendez MF. “Early-onset Alzheimer disease and its variants”. Continuum (Minneap Minn) 25 (2019): 34-51.
  4. Realdon O., et al. “Technology-enhanced multi-domain at home continuum of care program with respect to usual care for people with cognitive impairment: the Ability Telereh ABILIT ation study protocol for a randomized controlled trial”. BMC Psychiatry 16 (2016): 425.
  5. De Strooper B and Karran E. “The Cellular Phase of Alzheimer’s Disease”. Cell 164.4 (2016): 603-615.
  6. Selkoe DJ and Hardy J. “The amyloid hypothesis of Alzheimer’s disease at 25 years”. EMBO Molecular Medicine 8 (2016): 595-608.
  7. Yeagle PL. “Modulation of membrane function by cholesterol”. Biochimie 73 (1991): 1303-1310.
  8. Schroeder F., et al. “Membrane cholesterol dynamics: cholesterol domains and kinetic pools”. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 196 (1991): 235-252.
  9. KoradeZ and Kenworthy A. “Lipid rafts, cholesterol,and the brain”. Neuropharmacology 55 (2008): 1265-1273.
  10. G Testa., et al. “Implication of oxysterols in chronic inflammatory human diseases”. Biochimie 153 (2018): 220-231.
  11. IHK Dias., et al. “Hypercholesterolaemia-induced oxidative stress at the blood-brain barrier,Biochem”. Journal of the Chemical Society Transactions 42.4 (2014): 1001-1005.
  12. A Zmysłowski and A Szterk. “Current knowledge on the mechanism of atherosclerosis and pro-atherosclerotic properties of oxysterols”. Lipids in Health and Disease 16.1 (2017): 188.
  13. W Kulig., et al. “Cholesterol oxidation products and their biological importance”. Chemistry and Physics of Lipids 199 (2016): 144-160.
  14. D Lütjohann., et al. “Cholesterol homeostasis in human brain: evidence for an agedependent flux of 24S-hydroxycholesterol from the brain into the circulation”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1996,93.18 (1996): 9799-9804.
  15. V Leoni., et al. “Diagnostic use of cerebral and extracerebral oxysterols”. Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (CCLM) 42.2 (2004): 186-191.
  16. I Björkhem. “Do oxysterols control cholesterol homeostasis?”.  Journal of Clinical Investigation 110.6 (2002): 725-730.
  17. I Björkhem., et al. “Oxysterols and Alzheimer’s disease”. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica 114 (2006): 43-49.
  18. RJ Fakheri and NB Javitt. “27-Hydroxycholesterol, does it exist?.On the nomenclature and stereochemistry of 26-hydroxylated sterols”. Steroids 77.6 (2012): 575-577.
  19. DR. Bauman., et al. “25-Hydroxycholesterol secreted by macrophages in response to Toll-like receptor activation suppresses immunoglobulin A production”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106.39 (2009): 16764-16769.
  20. Mahley RW. “Central nervous system lipoproteins: ApoE and regulation of cholesterol metabolism”. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology 36 (2016):1305-1315.
  21. Björkhem I and Meaney S. “Brain cholesterol:long secret life behind a barrier”. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology 24 (2004): 806-815.
  22. Dietschy JM and Turley SD. “Thematic review series: brain Lipids. Cholesterol metabolism in the central nervous system during early development and in the mature animal”. Journal of Lipid Research 45 (2004):1375-1397.
  23. Nieweg K., et al. “Marked differences in cholesterol synthesis between neurons and glial cells from postnatal rats”. Journal of Neurochemistry 109 (2009): 125-134.
  24. Xue‐Shan Z., et al. “Imbalanced cholesterol metabolism in Alzheimer’s disease”. Clinica Chimica Acta 456 (2016): 107 ‐114.
  25. Fünfschilling U., et al. “Survival of adult neurons lacking cholesterol synthesis In vivo”. BMC Neuroscience 8 (2007): 1.
  26. Valdez CM., et al. “Cholesterol homeostasis markers are localized to mouse hippocampal pyramidal and granule layers”. Hippocampus 20 (2010): 902-905.
  27. Liu Q., et al. “Neuronal LRP1 knockout in adult mice leads to impaired brain lipid metabolism and progressive, age-dependent synapse loss and neurodegeneration”. The Journal of Neuroscience 30 (2010): 17068-17078.
  28. Mitsche MA., et al. “Flux analysis of cholesterol biosynthesis in vivo reveals multiple tissue and cell-type specific pathways”. Elife 4 (2015): e07999.
  29. Vitali C., et al. “HDL and cholesterol handling in the brain”. Cardiovascular Research 103 (2014): 405-413.
  30. Balazs Z., et al. “Uptake and transport of high density lipoprotein (HDL) and HDL-associated alphatocopherol by an in vitro blood-brain barrier model”. Journal of Neurochemistry 89 (2004): 939-950.
  31. Rigotti A., et al. “Scavenger receptor BI--a cell surface receptor for high density lipoprotein”. Current Opinion in Lipidology 8 (1997): 181-188.
  32. Dehouck B., et al. “Upregulation of the low density lipoprotein receptor at the blood-brain barrier: intercommunications between braincapillary endothelial cells and astrocytes”. Journal of Cell Biology 126 (1994): 465-473.
  33. Ladu MJ., et al. “Lipoproteins in the central nervous system”. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 903 (2000): 167-175.
  34. Boyles JK., et al. “Apolipoprotein E associated with astrocytic glia of the central nervous system and with nonmyelinating glia of the peripheral nervous system”. Journal of Clinical Investigation 76 (1985): 1501-1513.
  35. Fagan AM., et al. “Unique lipoproteins secreted by primary astrocytes from wild type, apoE (-/-), and human apoE transgenic mice”. Journal of Biological Chemistry 274 (1999): 30001-30007.
  36. Navarro A., et al. “Lifelong expression of apolipoprotein D in the human brainstem: correlation with reduced age-related neurodegeneration”. PLoS One 8 (2013): e77852.
  37. Koch S., et al. “Characterization of four lipoprotein classes in human cerebrospinal fluid”. Journal of Lipid Research 42 (2001): 1143-1151.
  38. Vance JE and Hayashi H. “Formation and function of apolipoprotein E-containing lipoproteins in the nervous system”. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1801 (2010): 806-818.
  39. Albers JJ., et al. “Cholesteryl ester transfer protein in human brain”. International Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Research 21 (1992): 264-266.
  40. Zhou T., et al. “Phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) deficiency impaired blood-brain barrier integrity by increasing cerebrovascular oxidative stress”. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 445 (2014): 352-356.
  41. Vuletic S., et al. “Widespread distribution of PLTP in human CNS: evidence for PLTP synthesis by glia and neurons, and increased levels in Alzheimer's disease”. Journal of Lipid Research 44 (2003): 1113-1123.
  42. Demeester N., et al. “Characterization and functional studies of lipoproteins, lipid transfer proteins, and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase in CSF of normal individuals and patients with Alzheimer's disease”. Journal of Lipid Research 41 (2000): 963-974.
  43. Linton MF., et al. “Phenotypes of apolipoprotein B and apolipoprotein E after liver transplantation”. Journal of Clinical Investigation 88 (1991): 270-281.
  44. Elshourbagy NA., et al. “Apolipoprotein E mRNA is abundant in the brain and adrenals, as well as in the liver, and is present in other peripheral tissues of rats and marmosets”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 82 (1985): 203-207.
  45. Mahley RW., et al. “Apolipoprotein E4: a causative factor and therapeutic target in neuropathology, including Alzheimer's disease”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 103 (2006): 5644-5651.
  46. Xu Q., et al. “Profile and regulation of apolipoprotein E (ApoE) expression in the CNS in mice with targeting of green fluorescent protein gene to the ApoE locus”. The Journal of Neuroscience 26 (2006): 4985-4994.
  47. Stukas S., et al. “Intravenously injected human apolipoprotein A-I rapidly enters the central nervous system via the choroid plexus”. Journal of the American Heart Association 3 (2014): e001156.
  48. Herz J. “ApoE receptors in the nervous system”. Current Opinion in Lipidology 20 (2009): 190-196.
  49. Bu G. “Apolipoprotein E and its receptors in Alzheimer's disease: pathways, pathogenesis and therapy”. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 10 (2009): 333-344.
  50. Holtzman DM., et al. “Apolipoprotein E and apolipoprotein E receptors: normal biology and roles in Alzheimer disease”. Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine 2 (2012): a006312.
  51. Moestrup SK., et al. “Distribution of the alpha 2-macroglobulin receptor/low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein in human tissues”. Cell and Tissue Research 269 (1992): 375-382.
  52. Rebeck GW., et al. “Apolipoprotein E in sporadic Alzheimer's disease: allelic variation and receptor interactions”. Neuron 11 (1993): 575-580.
  53. Björkhem I., et al. “Cholesterol homeostasis in human brain: turnover of 24S-hydroxycholesterol and evidence for a cerebral origin of most of this oxysterol in the circulation”. Journal of Lipid Research 39 (1998): 1594-1600.
  54. Bryleva EY., et al. “ACAT1 gene ablation increases 24(S)- hydroxycholesterol content in the brain and ameliorates amyloid pathology in mice with AD”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 107 (2010): 3081-3086.
  55. Sakashita N., et al. “Localization of human acylcoenzyme A: cholesterol acyltransferase-1 (ACAT-1) in macrophages and in various tissues”. The American Journal of Pathology 156 (2000): 227-236.
  56. Zhang J and Liu Q. “Cholesterol metabolism and homeostasis in the brain”. Protein Cell 6 (2016): 254-264.
  57. Russell DW., et al. “Cholesterol 24-hydroxylase: an enzyme of cholesterol turnover in the brain”. Annual Review of Biochemistry 78 (2009): 1017-1040.
  58. Lund EG., et al. “cDNA cloning of cholesterol 24-hydroxylase, a mediator of cholesterol homeostasis in the brain”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 96 (1999): 7238- 7243.
  59. Lund EG., et al. “Knockout of the cholesterol 24-hydroxylase gene in mice reveals a brain-specific mechanism of cholesterol turnover”. Journal of Biological Chemistry 278 (2003): 22980-22988.
  60. Ramirez DM., et al. “Neuronal expression and subcellular localization of cholesterol 24-hydroxylase in the mouse brain”. The Journal of Comparative Neurology 507.5 (2008):1676-1693.
  61. Meaney S., et al. “On the rate of translocation In vitro and kinetics In vivo of the major oxysterols in human circulation: critical importance of the position of the oxygen function”. Journal of Lipid Research 43 (2002): 2130-2135.
  62. Hughes TM., et al. “Brain cholesterol metabolism, oxysterols, and dementia”. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease 33 (2013): 891-911.
  63. Papassotiropoulos A., et al. “24S-hydroxycholesterol in cerebrospinal fluid is elevated in early stages of dementia”. Journal of Psychiatric Research 36 (2002): 27-32.
  64. Heverin M., et al. “Changes in the levels of cerebral and extracerebral sterols in the brain of patients with Alzheimer's disease”. Journal of Lipid Research 45 (2004): 186-193.
  65. Shafaati M., et al. “Levels of ApoE in cerebrospinal fluid are correlated with Tau and 24S-hydroxycholesterol in patients with cognitive disorders”. Neuroscience Letters 425 (2007): 78-82.
  66. Björkhem I. “Crossing the barrier:oxysterols as cholesterol cholesterol transporters and metabolic modulators in the brain”. Journal of Internal Medicine 260 (2006): 493-508.
  67. Kim WS., et al. “Role of ATP-binding cassette transporters in brain lipid transport and neurological disease”. Journal of Neurochemistry 104 (2008): 1145-1166.
  68. Kim WS., et al. “Quantitation of ATP-binding cassette subfamily-A transporter gene expression in primary human brain cells”. Neuro Report 17 (2006): 891-896.
  69. Kim WS., et al. “Role of ABCG1 and ABCA1 in regulation of neuronal cholesterol efflux to apolipoprotein E discs and suppression of amyloid-beta peptide generation”. Journal of Biological Chemistry 282 (2007): 2851-2861.
  70. Gosselet F., et al. “Transcriptional profiles of receptors and transporters involved in brain cholesterol homeostasis at the blood-brain barrier: use of an In vitro model”. Brain Research 1249 (2009): 34-42.
  71. G English. “Mitochondrial cholesterol trafficking: impact on inflammatory mediators”. Bioscience Horizons 3.1 (2010): 1-9.
  72. AJ Brown., et al. “Cholesterol and oxysterol metabolism and subcellular distribution in macrophage foam cells. Accumulation of oxidized esters in lysosomes”. Journal of Lipid Research 41.2 (2000): 226-237.
  73. A Vejux., et al. “7-Ketocholesterol favors lipid accumulation and colocalizes with Nile Red positive cytoplasmic structures formed during 7-ketocholesterol-induced apoptosis: analysis by flow cytometry, FRET biphoton spectral imaging microscopy, and subcellular fractionation”. Cytometry A. 64.2 (2005): 87-100.
  74. A Vejux., et al. “Cytotoxic oxysterols induce caspase-independent myelin figure formation and caspase-dependent polar lipid accumulation”. Histochemistry and Cell Biology 127.6 (2007): 609-624.
  75. A Vejux., et al. “Phospholipidosis and down-regulation of the PI3-K/PDK-1/Akt signalling pathway are vitamin E inhibitable events associated with 7-ketocholesterol- induced apoptosis”. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 20.1 (2009): 45-61.
  76. F Brahmi., et al. “Prevention of 7-ketocholesterol-induced side effects by natural compounds”. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition (2018): 1-20.
  77. JM Mathieu., et al. “Medical bioremediation of age-related diseases, Microb”. Cell Facts. 8 (2009): 21-27.
  78. D Lütjohann., et al. “Cholesterol dynamics in the foetal and neonatal brain as reflected by circulatory levels of 24S-hydroxycholesterol”. Acta Paediatrica 90.6 (2001): 652-657.
  79. V Leoni and C Caccia. “Oxysterols as biomarkers in neurodegenerative diseases”. Chemistry and Physics of Lipids 164.6 (2011): 515-524.
  80. L Iuliano., et al. “Vitamin E and enzymatic/oxidative stress-driven oxysterols in amnestic mild cognitive impairment subtypes and Alzheimer’s disease”. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease 21.4 (2010): 1383-1392.
  81. G Zuliani., et al. “Plasma 24S-hydroxycholesterol levels in elderly subjects with late onset Alzheimer’s disease or vascular dementia:a case-control study”. BMC Neurology 11.122 (2011): 1471-2377.
  82. Q Liu., et al. “Relationship between oxysterols and mild cognitive impairment in the elderly: a case-control study”. Lipids in Health and Disease 15.1 (2016): 177.
  83. D Lütjohann., et al. “Plasma 24S-hydroxycholesterol (cerebrosterol) is increased inAlzheimer and vascular demented patients”. Journal of Lipid Research 41.2 (2000): 195-198.
  84. J Popp., et al. “Cholesterol metabolism is associated with soluble amyloid precursor protein production in Alzheimer’s disease”. Journal of Neurochemistry 123.2 (2012): 310-316.
  85. J Popp., et al. “Cerebral and extracerebral cholesterol metabolism and CSF markers of Alzheimer’s disease”. Biochemical Pharmacology 86.1 (2013): 37-42.
  86. P Schönknecht., et al. “Cerebrospinal fluid 24S-hydroxycholesterol is increased in patients with Alzheimer’s disease compared to healthy controls”. Neuroscience Letters 324.1 (2002): 83-85.
  87. A Papassotiropoulos., et al. “24 S-hydroxycholesterol in cerebrospinal fluid is elevated in early stages of dementia”. Journal of Psychiatric Research 36.1 (2002): 27-32.
  88. TM Hughes., et al. “Markers of cholesterol metabolism in the brain show stronger associations with cerebrovascular disease than Alzheimer’s disease”. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease 30.1 (2012): 53-61.
  89. A Besga., et al. “Differences in brain cholesterol metabolism and insulin in two subgroups of patients with different CSF biomarkers but similar white matter lesions suggest different pathogenic mechanisms”. Neuroscience Letters 510 (2012): 121-126.
  90. TM Hughes., et al. “Markers of cholesterol transport are associated with amyloid deposition in the brain”. Neurobiology of Aging 35.4 (2014): 802-807.
  91. A Solomon., et al. “Plasma levels of 24S-hydroxycholesterol reflect brain volumes in patients without objective cognitive impairment but not in those with Alzheimer’s disease”. Neuroscience Letters 462.1 (2009): 89-93.
  92. J Koschack., et al. “Serum 24S-hydroxycholesterol and hippocampal size in middle-aged normal individuals”. Neurobiology of Aging 30.6 (2009): 898-902.
  93. L Mateos., et al. “Upregulation of brain renin angiotensin system by 27-hydroxycholesterol in Alzheimer’s disease”. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease 24.4 (2011): 669-679.
  94. V Leoni., et al. “Are the CSF levels of 24S-hydroxycholesterol a sensitive biomarker for mild cognitive impairment?” Neuroscience Letters 397.1-2 (2006): 83-87.
  95. V Leoni. “Diagnostic power of 24S-hydroxycholesterol in cerebrospinal fluid: candidate marker of brain health”. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease 36.4 (2013): 739-747.
  96. H Kölsch., et al. “RXRA gene variations influence Alzheimer’s disease risk and cholesterol metabolism”. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine 13.3 (2009): 589-598.
  97. V Leoni. “Diagnostic power of 24S-hydroxycholesterol in cerebrospinal fluid: candidate marker of brain health”.  Journal of Alzheimer's Disease 36.4 (2013):739-747.
  98. MA Burlot., et al. “Cholesterol 24-hydroxylase defect is implicated in memory impairments associated with Alzheimer-like Tau pathology”. Human Molecular Genetics 24.21 (2015): 5965-5976.
  99. A Serrano-Pozo., et al. “Effects of simvastatin on cholesterol metabolism and Alzheimer disease biomarkers”. Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders 24.3 (2010): 220.
  100. JM Wardlaw., et al. “Neuroimaging standards for research into small vessel disease and its contribution to ageing and neurodegeneration”. The Lancet Neurology 12.8 (2013): 822-838.
  101. Kosari S., et al. “Effect of western and high fat diets on memory and cholinergic measures in the rat”. Behavioural Brain Research 235 (2012): 98-103. 
  102. Chan RB., et al. “Comparative lipidomic analysis of mouse and human brain with Alzheimer disease”. Journal of Biological Chemistry 287 (2012): 2678‐2688. 
  103. Solomon A., et al. “Serum cholesterol changes after midlife and late‐life cognition: twenty‐oneyear follow‐up study”. Neurology 68 (2007): 751‐756. 
  104. Saeedi Saravi SS., et al. “The beneficial effects of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors in the processes of neurodegeneration”. Metabolic Brain Disease 32 (2017): 949-965.
Citation: Rajib Dutta. “Altered Brain Cholesterol Metabolism is Related to Disease Severity, Neurodegeneration and Atrophy in AD”. EC Neurology 12.3 (2020): 01-11.

PubMed Indexed Article

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777

EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033

EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992

EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505

EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793

EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211

EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047

EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560

EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318

EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819

EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840

EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476

EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658

EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489

EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278

EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108

EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571

EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333

EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883

EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001

EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937

EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723

EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726

EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646

EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226

EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268

News and Events

November Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the November issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

ECronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before December 14, 2021.

Certificate of Publication

ECronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

ECronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.

Immediate Assistance

The prime motto of this team is to clarify all the queries without any delay or hesitation to avoid the inconvenience. For immediate assistance on your queries please don't hesitate to drop an email to