Systematic Review
Volume 12 Issue 2 - 2020
Distinguishing Late-Life Depression and Alzheimer’s Disease Based on Memory Impairment and Memory-Associated Biochemical Markers- A Systematic Review
Daniel Kjærgaard1 and Jesper Mogensen2*
1Department of Psychology, University of Copenhagen, Denmark
2The Unit for Cognitive Neuroscience (UCN), Department of Psychology, University of Copenhagen, Denmark
*Corresponding Author:Jesper Mogensen, The Unit for Cognitive Neuroscience (UCN), Department of Psychology, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
Received: December 16, 2019; Published: January 31, 2020




Abstract

Background: The need to identify Alzheimer’s disease and late-life depression increases as the overall age of the population rises. The lack of evidence of the underlying physiopathologies as well as the heterogeneity of both illnesses complicate the distinction, thus increasing the risk of misdiagnosis. Providing the appropriate diagnoses are necessary to ensure the best possible outcome of care and treatment of existing and future treatment. This systematic review examines the role of episodic memory impairment and memory-associated biochemical markers to distinguish between late-life depression and Alzheimer’s disease. 

Method: 78 articles were included for full-text screening, of which 9 met the inclusion criteria. These criteria are that articles includes both participants with late-life depression and Alzheimer’s disease, examining impaired episodic memory and are peer-reviewed. Studies examining genes or having comorbid illnesses were not included. 

Results: Late-life depression and Alzheimer’s disease can both be characterized by hippocampal atrophy which consequently can lead to impairment of episodic memory (especially coding new information) and changes in memory-associated biochemical markers. Indeed, measures of cerebrospinal fluid (p-tau231, AβxMAP&t-tau/Aβ40, Aβ1-40/1-42, D-serine and Neprilysin) and urinary samples (AD7c-NTP) are able to distinguish between the two illnesses with a sensitivity and specificity ~80%. Neuropsychological tests (FCSRT, OI) have approximately the same accuracy. Yet, also reflected in the reviewed papers is the fact that late-life depression is not a homogeneous diagnosis, thus subtypes might be particularly difficult to differentiate from Alzheimer’s disease. Furthermore, the possibility that subtypes of late-life depression are prodromes to Alzheimer’s disease is a pressing issue questioning whether the differentiation is even possible. 

Conclusion: Measures of memory impairment can be valid means to distinguish late-life depression from Alzheimer’s disease. Both diagnoses can be characterized by impairment of episodic memory, indeed, the degree of the impairment is what can help set the diagnosis. Future studies should study the underlying pathophysiology of both diagnoses, and understand the possible causal relationship between them, to set a more certain diagnosis.

Keywords: Alzheimer’s Disease; Late-Life Depression; Cerebrospinal Fluid; Neuropsychological Tests; Differentiation

References

  1. WHO. “Depression and other common mental disorders - Global health estimates”. Geneva: World Health Organization (2017).
  2. Guerra M., et al. “A comparative cross-cultural study of the prevalence of late life depression in low and middle income countries”. Journal of Affective Disorders 190 (2016): 362-368.
  3. Weyerer S., et al. “Prevalence and risk factors for depression in non-demented primary care attenders aged 75 years and older”. Journal of Affective Disorders 111 (2008): 153-163.
  4. Zhang QE, et al. “The association between urinary Alzheimer-associated neuronal thread protein and cognitive impairment in late-life depression: a controlled pilot study”. International Journal of Biological Sciences 14 (2018): 1497-1502.
  5. Prince M., et al. “World Alzheimer Report 2015 - The global impact of dementia. Analysis of prevalence, incidence, cost and trends”. London: Alzheimer's Disease International (2015).
  6. Pedersen H and Taudorf S. “Demens, delirium of depression”. In E.A. Holm and F. Rønholt (Eds.) Geriatri. København: Munksgaard (2016): 337-356.
  7. Brunnstrom H., et al. “Prevalence of dementia subtypes: a 30-year retrospective survey of neuropathological reports”. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics 49 (2009): 146-149.
  8. Rizzi L., et al. “Global epidemiology of dementia: Alzheimers and vascular types”. BioMed Research International 3 (2014).
  9. McCall WV and Kintziger KW. “Late life depression: a global problem with few resources”. Psychiatric Clinics of North America 36 (2013): 475-481.
  10. Phung TK., et al. “Validity of dementia diagnoses in the Danish hospital registers”. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders 24 (2007): 220-228.
  11. Engelborghs S. “Clinical indications for analysis of Alzheimer’s disease CSF biomarkers”. Revue Neurologique (Paris) 169 (2013): 709-714.
  12. Small GW., et al. “Diagnosis and treatment of Alzheimer disease and related disorders. Consensus statement of the American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry, the Alzheimer's Association, and the American Geriatrics Society”. The Journal of the American Medical Association 278 (1997): 1363-1371.
  13. Smith M., et al. “Late-life depression detection”. Journal of Gerontological Nursing 41 (2015): 18-25.
  14. Rudy JW. “The Neurobiology of learning and memory”. Boulder: Sinauer (2014).
  15. Abelskov K and Damsgaard EM. ”Demens”. In EM Damsgaard D Nielsen and and K Rahbek (Eds.) Geriatri en tværfaglig og problemorienteret tilgang. København: Gads Forlag (2013): 149-160.
  16. Fountoulakis KN., et al. “Unipolar late-onset depression: A comprehensive review”. Annals of General Hospital Psychiatry 2 (2003): 1-14.
  17. Alexopoulos GS and Apfeldorf W. “Unipolar depression”. In SP Roose and HA Sackeim (Eds.). Late Life depression. Oxford: Oxford University Press (2004): 21-33.
  18. van Gorp WG., et al. “Neuropsychological assessment of late-life depression”. In SP Roose and HA Sackeim (Eds.) Late-life depression. Oxford: Oxford University Press (2004): 117-128.
  19. Wang G., et al. “Alzheimer's disease”. In R.A. Meyers (Ed.) Proteins. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH (2006). 257-322.
  20. El Haj M., et al. “Apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 and episodic memory decline in Alzheimer's disease: A review”. Ageing Research Reviews 27 (2016): 15-22.
  21. Blennow K and Vanmechelen E. “CSF markers for pathogenic processes in Alzheimer's disease: diagnostic implications and use in clinical neurochemistry”. Brain Research Bulletin 61(2003): 235-242.
  22. Villemagne VL., et al. “Amyloid β deposition, neurodegeneration, and cognitive decline in sporadic Alzheimer's disease: A prospective cohort study”. Lancet Neurology 12 (2013): 357-367.
  23. Moher D., et al. “Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement”. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 62 (2009): 1006-1012.
  24. Buerger K., et al. “Differentiation of geriatric major depression from Alzheimer's disease with CSF tau protein phosphorylated at threonine 231”. American Journal of Psychiatry 160 (2003): 376-379.
  25. Hertze J., et al. “Evaluation of CSF biomarkers as predictors of Alzheimer's disease: a clinical follow-up study of 4.7 years”. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease 21(2010): 1119-1128.
  26. Sun X., et al. “The relationship between plasma amyloid-β peptides and the medial temporal lobe in the homebound elderly”. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 26 (2011): 593-601.
  27. Chen B., et al. “Cognitive impairment and structural abnormalities in late life depression with olfactory identification impairment: an Alzheimer's disease-like pattern”. International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology 21(2018): 640-648.
  28. Grön G., et al. “Subjective memory complaints: objective neural markers in patients with Alzheimer's disease and major depressive disorder”. Annals of Neurology 51 (2002): 491-498.
  29. Teichmann M., et al. “Free and cued selective reminding test - accuracy for the differential diagnosis of Alzheimer's and neurodegenerative diseases: A large-scale biomarker-characterized monocenter cohort study (ClinAD)”. Alzheimer’s and Dementia 13 (2017): 913-923.
  30. Madeira C., et al. “d-serine levels in Alzheimer's disease: implications for novel biomarker development”. Translational Psychiatry 5 (2015): e561.
  31. Sorensen KC., et al. “Neprilysin-like activity correlates with CSF-Tau and phospho-tau in patients with Alzheimer's disease”. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease 37 (2013): 379-387.
  32. McKhann GM., et al. “The diagnosis of dementia due to Alzheimer's disease: recommendations from the National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer's Association workgroups on diagnostic guidelines for Alzheimer's disease”. Alzheimer’s and Dementia 7 (2011): 263-269.
  33. Mitchell A and Brindle N. “CSF phosphorylated tau--does it constitute an accurate biological test for Alzheimer's disease?” International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 18 (2003): 407-411.
  34. Lebowitz BD and Olin JT. “The social and financial burden of late-life depression to society and individuals”. In SP Roose and HA Sackeim (Eds.) Late Life Depression. Oxford: Oxford University Press (2004): 12-16.
  35. Brown EE., et al. “Tau in Late-Life Depression: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis”. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease 54 (2016): 615-633.
  36. Carnero-Pardo C. “Should the Mini-Mental State Examination be retired?” Neurología 29 (2014): 473-481.
  37. Glodzik L., et al. “Phosphorylated tau 231, memory decline and medial temporal atrophy in normal elders”. Neurobiology of Aging 32 (2011): 2131-2141.
  38. Sun X., et al. “Amyloid-associated depression: a prodromal depression of Alzheimer disease?”. Archives of Geneneral Psychiatry 65 (2008): 542-550.
  39. Wu KY., et al. “Plasma Abeta analysis using magnetically-labeled immunoassays and PET (18)F-florbetapir binding in non-demented patients with major depressive disorder”. Scientific Reports 8 (2018a): 2739. 
  40. Chung JK., et al. “Lifetime history of depression predicts increased amyloid-β accumulation in patients with mild cognitive impairment”. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease 45 (2015): 907-919.
  41. do Couto FS., et al. “Depression with melancholic features is associated with higher long-term risk for dementia”. Journal of Affective Disorders 202 (2016): 220-229.
  42. Javaherian K., et al. “Examining the complicated relationship between depressive symptoms and cognitive impairment in preclinical Alzheimer disease”. Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders 33 (2018): 15-20.
  43. Parikh R., et al. “Understanding and using sensitivity, specificity and predictive values”. Indian Journal of Ophthalmology 56 (2008): 45-50.
  44. Brommelhoff JA., et al. “Depression as a risk factor or prodromal feature for dementia? Findings in a population-based sample of Swedish twins”. Psychology and Aging 24 (2009): 373-384.
  45. Kang H., et al. “Pseudo-dementia: A neuropsychological review”. Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology 17 (2014): 147-154.
  46. Pannucci CJ and Wilkins EG. “Identifying and avoiding bias in research”. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 126 (2010): 619-625.
  47. Ditzen C., et al. “Cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers for major depression confirm relevance of associated pathophysiology”. Neuropsychopharmacology 37 (2012): 1013-1025.
  48. Hummel T., et al. “'Sniffin' sticks': olfactory performance assessed by the combined testing of odor identification, odor discrimination and olfactory threshold”. Chemical Senses 22 (1997): 39-52.
  49. Marine N and Boriana A. “Olfactory markers of depression and Alzheimer's disease”. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 45 (2014): 262-270.
  50. Growdon ME., et al. “Odor identification and Alzheimer disease biomarkers in clinically normal elderly”. Neurology 84 (2015): 2153-2160.
  51. Pentzek M., et al. “Odor identification in Alzheimer's disease and depression”. Aging Clinical and Experimental Research 19 (2007): 255-258.
  52. Solomon GS., et al. “Olfactory dysfunction discriminates Alzheimer's dementia from major depression”. Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 10 (1998): 64-67.
  53. Buckley RF., et al. “Subjective memory decline predicts greater rates of clinical progression in preclinical Alzheimer's disease”. Alzheimer’s and Dementia 12 (2016): 796-804.
  54. Treves TA., et al. “Incidence of dementia in patients with subjective memory complaints”. International Psychogeriatrics 17 (2005): 265-273.
  55. Dubois B and Albert ML. “Amnestic MCI or prodromal Alzheimer's disease?” Lancet Neurology 3 (2004): 246-248.
  56. Dubois B., et al. “Research criteria for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease: revising the NINCDS-ADRDA criteria”. Lancet Neurology 6 (2007): 734-746.
  57. Hampel H., et al. “Advances in the development of biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease: From CSF total tau and Aβ1-42 proteins to phosphorylated tau protein”. Brain Research Bulletin 61 (2003): 243-253.
  58. Arlt S. “Non-Alzheimer's disease-related memory impairment and dementia”. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience 15 (2013): 465-473.
  59. Barca ML., et al. “Trajectories of depressive symptoms and their relationship to the progression of dementia”. Journal of Affective Disorders 222 (2017): 146-152.
  60. Wu KY., et al. “Diversity of neurodegenerative pathophysiology in nondemented patients with major depressive disorder: Evidence of cerebral amyloidosis and hippocampal atrophy”. Brain and Behavior 8 (2018b): e01016. 
  61. Keller J., et al. “Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity in mood and cognition in the elderly: Implications for symptoms and outcomes”. In SP Roose and HA Sackeim (Eds.) Late life depression. Oxford: Oxford University Press (2004): 157-166.
  62. Shleper M., et al. “D-serine is the dominant endogenous coagonist for NMDA receptor neurotoxicity in organotypic hippocampal slices”. Journal of Neuroscience 25 (2005): 9413-9417.
  63. MacKay MB., et al. "D-serine: potential therapeutic agent and/or biomarker in schizophrenia and depression?” Frontiers in Psychiatry 10 (2019): 25.
  64. WHO The global burden of disease: 2004 update (2008): 1-160. 
  65. Meisel A., et al. “Pathophysiology of stroke”. In R.A. Meyers (Ed.) Neurobiology - from molecular basis to disease. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH, 2 (2008): 743-744.
  66. Howell DC. “Chapter 15: Power in fundamental statistics for the behavioral sciences”. Belmont: Wadsworth Cengage Learning, 9th edition (2007): 378-402.
  67. Zubenko GS. “Major depressive disorder in Alzheimer's disease”. In SP. Roose and HA Sackeim (Eds.) Late-Life Depression. Oxford: Oxford University Press (2004): 361-369.
  68. Bos I., et al. “The frequency and influence of dementia risk factors in prodromal Alzheimer's disease”. Neurobiology of Aging 56 (2017): 33-40.
  69. Heser K., et al. “Age of major depression onset, depressive symptoms, and risk for subsequent dementia: results of the German study on ageing, cognition, and dementia in primary care patients (AgeCoDe)”. Psychological Medicine 43 (2013): 1597-1610.
  70. Wright SL and Persad C. “Distinguishing between depression and dementia in older persons: neuropsychological and neuropathological correlates”. Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology 20 (2016): 189-198.
  71. Blazer DG. “The epidemiology of depressive disorders in late life”. In SP Roose and HA Sackeim (Eds.) Late life depression. Oxford: Oxford University Press (2004): 3-11
  72. Byers AL and Yaffe K. “Depression and risk of developing dementia”. Nature Reviews Neurology 7 (2011): 323-331.
  73. Wake T., et al. “The psychological impact of disclosing amyloid status to japanese elderly: A preliminary study on asymptomatic patients with subjective cognitive decline”. International Psychogeriatrics 30 (2018): 635-639.
  74. Boccia M., et al. “Neuroanatomy of Alzheimer's Disease and Late-Life Depression: A Coordinate-Based Meta-Analysis of MRI Studies”. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease 46 (2015): 963-970.
  75. Leposavic I., et al. “Depression vs. dementia: A comparative analysis of neuropsychological functions”. Psihologija 43 (2010): 137-153.
  76. Doherty CM and Forbes RB. “Diagnostic lumbar puncture”. Ulster Medical Journal 83 (2014): 93-102.
  77. Tung CE., et al. “Cost comparison between the atraumatic and cutting lumbar puncture needles”. Neurology 78 (2012): 109-113.
  78. Garcez ML., et al. “Alzheimer's disease associated with psychiatric comorbidities”. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências 87.2 (2015): 1461-1473.
  79. Ahn E and Kang H. “Introduction to systematic review and meta-analysis”. Korean Journal of Anesthesiology 71 (2018): 103-112.
Citation: Daniel Kjærgaard and Jesper Mogensen. “Distinguishing Late-Life Depression and Alzheimer’s Disease Based on Memory Impairment and Memory-Associated Biochemical Markers- A Systematic Review”. EC Neurology 12.2 (2020): 01-26.

PubMed Indexed Article


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777


EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033


EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992


EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505


EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793


EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211


EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047


EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560


EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318


EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819


EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840


EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476


EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658


EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489


EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278


EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108


EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571


EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333


EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883


EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001


EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937


EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723


EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726


EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646


EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226


EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268


News and Events


February Issue Release

We Always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released February issue for the respective journals and can be viewed in the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for April Issue

E-Cronicon delightfully welcome all the authors around the globe for an effective collaboration with an article submission for the March issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before March 03, 2020.

Certificate of Publication

E-Cronicon honours with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

E-Cronicon certify the Editors for their first review done towards assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

Latest articles will be updated immediately in the articles in press page of the respective journals.

Immediate Assistance

Prime moto of this team is to clarify all the queries without any delay or hesitation in order to avoid the inconvenience. For an immediate assistance on your queries please don't hesitate to drop an email to editor@ecronicon.uk