Review Article
Volume 10 Issue 8 - 2018
Neurophysiologic Mechanisms and the Functional Significance of Homeostatic and Circadian Regulation of Sleep
Aman Gupta1* and Shruti Gupta2
1Amity Institute of Neuropsychology and Neurosciences, Amity University, Uttar Pradesh, India and Sleep Medicine Graduate Reading, Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Oxford, England, UK
2Independent Clinical Research Scientist, India
*Corresponding Author: Aman Gupta, Amity Institute of Neuropsychology and Neurosciences, Amity University, Uttar Pradesh, India and Sleep Medicine Graduate Reading, Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Oxford, England, UK.
Received: June 21, 2018; Published: July 10, 2018
Citation: Aman Gupta and Shruti Gupta. "Neurophysiologic Mechanisms and the Functional Significance of Homeostatic and Circadian Regulation of Sleep”. EC Neurology 10.8 (2018): 658-670.
Abstract
Sleep is regulated through Homeostatic (S) and Circadian (C) processes. Significant literature is available on individual processes. In the current paper, coordination mechanism between the Homeostatic (S) and Circadian (C) Regulatory processes are with reference to Sleep/Wake Cycle is being reviewed. In the current article multiple original contributions were reviewed and a coordination process between the processes S and C is being explained. For the regulatory process S key components were found to be Orexin neuronal system, VLPO (Ventrolateral preoptic nucleus) and GABA neurons, monoaminergic neurons and Adenosine are involved. The process C involves the SCN (Suprachiasmatic -Nucleus), melatonin secretion, pRGCs (Retinal ganglionic cells) and peripheral organ clocks activation. Increased levels of adenosine in the forebrain are linked to induce sleep by virtue of activation of VLPO through GABA neurons. The GABA neurons also give feedback to the Orexin neurons at lateral hypothalamus which in turn leads to sleep induction. In the reciprocal process VLPO system gets deactivated leading to activation of Orexin system and through the Monoaminergic neurons wake state is brought. The process C involves the activation of the SCN by specific wavelength light. SCN which has direct connection with retina of the eye and the former initiates the secretion of Melatonin in the pineal gland and subsequent to which the peripheral organs clocks are activated leading to sleep state (Refer Figure 1). Findings: During the literature review it was observed that the process S and C are proposed to coordinate by interaction of Retina of the eye involving pRGCs (Retinal ganglionic cells) with VLPO (Homeostatic part) and controls Sleep/Wakefulness. Current review focussed to investigate the linkage between the process C and S. It was found that another cells of retinal origin Retinal ganglionic cells (other than rods and cones)were responsible for the link between the two processes. This may lead to innovations in the field of diagnosis and management of Sleep disorders.
Keywords: Muscle Hypotonia; Pediatric; Hypotonic Infant; Syndrome; Hypotonia
Copyright: © 2018 Aman Gupta and Shruti Gupta. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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