Review Article
Volume 16 Issue 2 - 2020
Outpatient Management of Thyroid Disorders
Mohamad Mohsen Motawea1*, Abdulhakam Abadi Falemban2, Ruolan Mohammad Khan3, Abdullah Abdulrhman S Alzarea4, Abdulaziz Abdulrhman S Alzarea4, Hadeel Anwar A Aljaber5, Abdulaziz Mutlaq H Alsharari4, Zainab Habib Alrashed6, Ibrahim Mohammed Aljassim7, Ameera Saeed Elahi3 and Rawan Dakilallah Al-Subhi3
1Abdul Latif Jameel Hospital for Medical Rehabilitation, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
2King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia
3Ibn Sina National Collage, Saudi Arabia
4University of Jordan, Jordan
5Northern Border University, Saudi Arabia
6Dammam University, Saudi Arabia
7Salmaniya Medical Complex, Bahrain
*Corresponding Author: Mohamad Mohsen Motawea, Abdul Latif Jameel Hospital for Medical Rehabilitation, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
Received: January 03, 2020; Published: January 11, 2020




Abstract

Introduction: One of the major endocrine dysfunctions are diseases seen in the thyroid glands, where there could be an increase or decrease in the thyroid hormones being synthesized or circulated. There is an increased incidence of the condition in women as compared to men and it is critical to assess the condition accurately for its best management. However, management strategies for thyroid disorders continue to undergo constant evolution. 

The Aim of Work: The study aimed to assess the information and practices regarding clinical management of thyroid disorders in the outpatient department. This review briefly outlines recent advances in managing thyroid disorders as well.

Methodology: The review is a comprehensive research of PUBMED from the year 1993 to 2019.

Conclusion: Thyroid diseases can span out to be life-long conditions that can be controlled by careful measures. Normalizing the normal blood levels of the thyroid hormones should be the goal of treatment. Pharmacological intervention is usually required in hyper and hypoparathyroidism. Antithyroid medications, beta-blockers, radioiodine and final resort being surgery can be used to treat the pathological condition.

Keywords: Thyroid Disease; Outcomes; Clinical Practice; Thyroid Dysfunction

References

  1. Ward L. “Thyroid and Parathyroid Diseases: New Insights into Some Old and Some New Issues”. Bo D–Books on Demand (2012).
  2. Brennan MD., et al. “The Mayo Clinic”. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 83.10 (1998): 3427-3434.
  3. Hing E., et al. “National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey: 2004 summary”. Advance Data 374 (2006): 1-33.
  4. King R and Ajjan RA. “Treatment Modalities in Thyroid Dysfunction”. Thyroid and Parathyroid Diseases–New Insights In to Some Old And Some New Issues (2012): 171.
  5. Ajjan RA and Weetman AP. “Techniques to quantify TSH receptor antibodies”. Nature Reviews Endocrinology 4.8 (2008): 461.
  6. Sato K., et al. “Immunological and chemical types of reversible hypothyroidism; clinical characteristics and long‐term prognosis”. Clinical Endocrinology 45.5 (1996): 519-528.
  7. Premawardhana LDKE and Lazarus JH. “Management of thyroid disorders”. Postgraduate Medical Journal 82.971 (2006): 552-558.
  8. Walter M A., et al. “Effects of antithyroid drugs on radioiodine treatment: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials”. BMJ 334.7592 (2007): 514.
  9. Girgis C M., et al. “Current concepts in Graves’ disease”. Therapeutic Advances in Endocrinology and Metabolism 2.3 (2011): 135-144.
  10. Hegedüs L. “The thyroid nodule”. New England Journal of Medicine 351.17 (2004): 1764-1771.
  11. Singer PA., et al. “Treatment guidelines for patients with thyroid nodules and well-differentiated thyroid cancer”. Archives of Internal Medicine 156.19 (1996): 2165-2172.
  12. Kimura M., et al. “Gestational thyrotoxicosis and hyperemesis gravidarum: possible role of hCG with higher stimulating activity”. Clinical Endocrinology 38.4 (1993): 345-350.
  13. Mandel SJ and Cooper DS. “The use of antithyroid drugs in pregnancy and lactation”. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 86.6 (2001): 2354-2359.
  14. Laurberg P., et al. “Guidelines for TSH-receptor antibody measurements in pregnancy: results of an evidence-based symposium organized by the European Thyroid Association”. European Journal of Endocrinology 139.6 (1998): 584-586.
  15. Lazarus JH. “Thyroid disorders associated with pregnancy”. Treatments in Endocrinology 4.1 (2005): 31-41.
  16. Premawardhana L D K E., et al. “Postpartum thyroiditis and long-term thyroid status: prognostic influence of thyroid peroxidase antibodies and ultrasound echogenicity”. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 85.1 (2000): 71-75.
  17. Martins J M., et al. “Outpatient Endocrine Diagnosis and Treatment of Thyroid Diseases and Disorders in a Portuguese Public University Hospital”. Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism 9.1-2 (2019): 3-17.
Citation: Mohamad Mohsen Motawea., et al. “Outpatient Management of Thyroid Disorders”. EC Microbiology 16.2 (2020): 01-08.

PubMed Indexed Article


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777


EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033


EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992


EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505


EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793


EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211


EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047


EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560


EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318


EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819


EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840


EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476


EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658


EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489


EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278


EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108


EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571


EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333


EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883


EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001


EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937


EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723


EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726


EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646


EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226


EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268


News and Events


March Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the March issue of respective journals and can be viewed in the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for April Issue

Ecronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the April issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before March 18, 2021.

Certificate of Publication

Ecronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

Ecronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.

Immediate Assistance

The prime motto of this team is to clarify all the queries without any delay or hesitation to avoid the inconvenience. For immediate assistance on your queries please don't hesitate to drop an email to editor@ecronicon.uk