Review Article
Volume 18 Issue 8 - 2022
Overview of Thyroid Nodules and Cysts Management
Barkia Hassan Almowalad1*, Ali Ahmed Buhaliqah2, Haidar Mohammed Alshamrani3, Shatha Abdulraouf Yousef3, Mohammed Ahmed Alghamdi4, Hassan Taher Alnakhli5, Asma Hussain Hamdi6, Asma Hassan Jamaan6, Norah Hamad Al Fataih6, Abdullah Nabil Attar1, Ola Mohammed Bafail7, Saif Mutair Alhuzali8 and Rami Saleh M Sufyani5
1King Abdulaziz Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
2Alfaisal University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
3King Fahad General Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
4Al-Baha University, Baha, Saudi Arabia
5King Salman Bin Abdulaziz Medical City, Medina, Saudi Arabia
6Najran University, Najran, Saudi Arabia
7King Abdullah Medical Complex, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
8Family Medicine Academy, Makkah, Saudi Arabia
*Corresponding Author: Barkia Hassan Almowalad, General Surgery Specialist, King Abdulaziz Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
Received: July 02, 2022; Published: July 28, 2022


Introduction: Thyroid nodules or growth are quite common among people, and they are mostly benign lesions. Despite their non-malignant nature in general, some of them pose a serious threat of being cancerous. The cancerous nodules must be surgically removed, whereas the non-cancerous ones must avoid unnecessary surgical removal. The roadmap to differentiating between the malignant and benign thyroid growths lies in detailed history taking and clinical examination followed by appropriate imaging. Based on these findings, a decision to perform a fine needle biopsy is made, which may be complemented by molecular tests. Finally, the decision for surgical excision of the partial or complete thyroid gland is made.

Aim of Work: The aim of this study is to discuss the overview of thyroid nodules.

Materials and Methods: This review is a comprehensive search of PUBMED from the year 1997 to 2018.

Conclusion: Thyroid nodules are usually benign and do not require any treatment other than follow-up tests. Nevertheless, the small percentage of nodules that do turn out to be malignant is of concern. Clinical examination, history taking, and diagnostic imaging do help clinicians decide on the possible need for biopsy. Fine needle aspiration biopsy, along with molecular tests, further help clinicians decide on the possibility of surgically removing the thyroid gland. It's a battle between removing the gland that is malignant vs. not removing the gland that is benign.

Keywords: Thyroid Nodule; Serum thyrotropin; Calcitonin; FNAC; Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma; Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma; Thyroidectomy


  1. Tan GH and Gharib H. “Thyroid incidentalomas: management approaches to nonpalpable nodules discovered incidentally on thyroid imaging”. Annals of Internal Medicine3 (1997): 226-231.
  2. Hemminki K., et al. “Familial risks for nonmedullary thyroid cancer”. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism10 (2005): 5747-5753.
  3. Choi JS., et al. “Evaluation of serum thyroid‐stimulating hormone as indicator for fine‐needle aspiration in patients with thyroid nodules”. Head and Neck4 (2015): 498-504.
  4. Liaw D., et al. “Germline mutations of the PTEN gene in Cowden disease, an inherited breast and thyroid cancer syndrome”. Nature Genetics1 (1997): 64-67.
  5. Popoveniuc G and Jonklaas J. “Thyroid nodules”. Medical Clinics2 (2012): 329-349.
  6. Meller J and Becker W. “The continuing importance of thyroid scintigraphy in the era of high-resolution ultrasound”. European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging2 (2002): S425-S438.
  7. Trimboli P., et al. “Preoperative measurement of serum thyroglobulin to predict malignancy in thyroid nodules: a systematic review”. Hormone and Metabolic Research04 (2015): 247-252.
  8. Jiménez C., et al. “Management of medullary thyroid carcinoma”. Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America2 (2008): 481-496.
  9. Frates MC., et al. “Management of thyroid nodules detected at US: Society of Radiologists in Ultrasound consensus conference statement”. Radiology3 (2005): 794-800.
  10. Kim EK. “Sonographic Evaluation of Thyroid Nodules”. Korean Journal of Endocrine Surgery2 (2008): 84-88.
  11. Frasoldati A and Valcavi R. “Challenges in neck ultrasonography: lymphadenopathy and parathyroid glands”. Endocrine Practice3 (2004): 261-268.
  12. Dighe MK. “Elastography of thyroid masses”. Ultrasound Clinics1 (2014): 13.
  13. Durante C., et al. “The diagnosis and management of thyroid nodules: a review”. The Journal of the American Medical Association9 (2018): 914-924.
  14. Nikiforov YE., et al. “Impact of the multi-gene ThyroSeq next-generation sequencing assay on cancer diagnosis in thyroid nodules with atypia of undetermined significance/follicular lesion of undetermined significance cytology”. Thyroid11 (2015): 1217-1223.
  15. Haugen B R., et al. “2015 American Thyroid Association management guidelines for adult patients with thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer: the American Thyroid Association guidelines task force on thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer”. Thyroid1 (2016): 1-133.
  16. Papini E., et al. “The advent of ultrasound-guided ablation techniques in nodular thyroid disease: towards a patient-tailored approach”. Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism4 (2014): 601-618.
  17. Perros P., et al. “Guidelines for the management of thyroid cancer”. Clinical Endocrinology 81 (2014): 1-122.
Citation: Barkia Hassan Almowalad., et al. “Overview of Thyroid Nodules and Cysts Management”. EC Microbiology 18.8 (2022): 81-88.

PubMed Indexed Article

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777

EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033

EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992

EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505

EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793

EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211

EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047

EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560

EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318

EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819

EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840

EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476

EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658

EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489

EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278

EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108

EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571

EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333

EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883

EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001

EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937

EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723

EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726

EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646

EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226

EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268

News and Events

March Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the March issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

ECronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before April 14, 2023.

Certificate of Publication

ECronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

ECronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.