Research Article
Volume 18 Issue 5 - 2022
Prevalence of Contamination of Fresh Vegetables Consumed at The Vegetable Markets in Khartoum locality, Sudan

Abrar A Haron1, Eman M Abakar1, Hamda A Hamid1, Marwa S Abdelrhman1, Omnia E Abdallah1, Yagoub H Mahmoud1, Sababil S Ali2, Yousof S Yousof3 and Elsadig A Hag2*

1Department of Parasitology and Medical Entomology, Faculty of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Elrazi University, Khartoum, Sudan

2Department of Parasitology and Medical Entomology, Faculty of Medical Laboratory Sciences, International University of Africa, Khartoum, Sudan

3Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Elrazi University, Khartoum, Sudan

*Corresponding Author: Elsadig A Haj, Department of Parasitology and Medical Entomology, Faculty of Medical Laboratory Sciences, National University, Khartoum, Sudan.
Received: March 20, 2022; Published: May 31, 2022


Background: The consumption of raw vegetables is a major way for bacteria and parasites to travel from one person to another. Fresh vegetables are considered essential. nutrients of a healthy diet as they provide the body with essential supplements. Intestinal parasites are transmitted primarily through the consumption of raw vegetables.

Aim: The purpose of this study was to detect parasitic contamination in fresh vegetables consumed at three open-air markets in Khartoum, Sudan.

Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study consisted of collecting 120 samples of fresh vegetables from three open-air markets (Elshaabi, Central markets, and Mayo) from Augustus to December 2020. Using standardized parasitological techniques for protozoans and helminths worms, we screened these samples for parasitic life forms using microscopy.

Results: A total of 120 water samples were used in Khartoum state, Sudan, to wash vegetables routinely used before human consumption. The most common parasites found were T. Hominis (43%), E. coli (20%), G. lamblia (80%) Strongyloides larva(12%), B. coli (35%), E. histolytic (17%), I. but chili (12%). our study showed that the most contaminated vegetable are watercress ((25%) followed by Eggplant (10%) and cucumber (1%).

Conclusion: The results of our study indicate that raw vegetables, especially leafy ones, could be a cause of food-borne illness outbreaks.

Keywords: Contamination; Fresh Vegetable Consumed; Vegetable Markets


  1. Idahosa OT. “Parasitic contamination of fresh vegetables sold in Jo's markets”. Global Journal of Medical Research 1 (2011): 21-25.
  2. Alhabbal AT. “The prevalence of parasitic contamination on common cold vegetables in the Alqalamoun Region”. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research 1 (2015): 94-97.
  3. Alade GO., et al. “Prevalence of intestinal parasites in vegetables sold in Ilorin, Nigeria”. American-Eurasian Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences 9 (2013): 1275-1282.
  4. Simon-Oke IA., et al. “Parasitic contamination of fruits and vegetables sold at Akure Metropolis, Ondo State, Nigeria”. Researcher 12 (2014): 30-35.
  5. Nazemi S., et al. “Parasitic contamination of raw vegetables inShahroud, Semnan”. Zahedan Journal of Research in Medical Sciences 8 (2012): 84-86.
  6. Ebrahi Mzadeh A., et al. “The parasitic contamination of raw vegetables consumed in Zahedan, Iran”. Health Scope 4 (2013): 205-209.
  7. Dudu K., et al. “A comparative survey of the prevalence of human parasites found in fresh vegetables sold in supermarkets and open-aired markets in Accra, Ghana”. BMC Research Notes 7 (2014): 836.
  8. Said D. “Detection of parasites in commonly consumed raw vegetables”. Alexandria Journal of Medicine 48 (2012): 345-352.
  9. Sunil B., et al. “Assessment of parasitic contamination of raw vegetables in Mannuthy, Kerala state, India”. Veterinary World4 (2014): 253-256.
  10. Ul-Haq S., et al. “Parasitic contamination of vegetables eaten raw in Lahore, Pakistan”. Journal of Zoology5 (2014): 1303-1309.
  11. Tomass Z and Kidane D. “Parasitological contamination of wastewater irrigated and raw manure fertilized vegetables in Mekelle city and its suburb, Tigray, Ethiopia”. CNCS Mekelle University1 (2012): 77-89.
  12. A Hajivandi L. “Parasitological contamination of markets and farms in vegetables consumed in southern Iran”. Global Veterinaria3 (2013): 327-331.
  13. Tefera T., et al. “Parasitic contamination of fruits and vegetables collected from selected local markets of Jimma town, southwest Ethiopia”. International Scholarly Research Notices (2014): 382715.
  14. Shehu M and Amina R. “Helminths contaminants of fruits and vegetables sold in rural areas of Zamfara States, Nigeria”. Journal of Zoological and Bioscience Research1 (2014): 15-19.
  15. Chau H., et al. “Microbial and parasitic contamination on fresh vegetables sold in traditional markets in Hue city, Vietnam”. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research12 (2014): 959-964.
  16. Uga S., et al. “Parasite egg contamination of vegetables from a suburban market in Hanoi, Vietnam”. Nepal Medical College Journal2 (2009): 75-78.
  17. Benti G and Gemechu F. “Parasitic contamination on vegetables irrigated with Awash river in selected farms, eastern Showa, Ethiopia”. Journal of Parasitology and Vector Biology7 (2014): 103-109.
  18. Eraky M., et al. “Parasitic contamination of commonly consumed fresh leafy vegetables in Benha, Egypt”. Journal of Parasitology Research (2014): 613960.
  19. Soulsby E. “Helminths, arthropods and protozoa of domesticated animals., English language book society”. London: Baillere Tindall (1982).
  20. Shahnazi M and Jafari-Sabet M. “Prevalence of parasitic contamination of raw vegetables in villages of Qazvin Province, Iran”. Foodborne Pathogens and Disease9 (2010): 1025-1030.
  21. Centers for disease control and prevention (CDC), Protozoa, about the parasite (2016).
  22. Kaushal M. “Available at medical microbiology”., introduction, and classification of parasites (2009).
  23. Garcia LS. “Available at Medical parasitology”. 4Th Edition, United States of America publisher (2001): 1092.
  24. PARA-SITE ONLINE (2015).
  25. Centers for disease control and prevention (CDC), Cryptosporidium parvum, parasites (2015).
  26. Shoff WH. “Available at Medscape”. com, Drugs and Diseases, Infectious Diseases, Cyclospora (2015).
  27. Centers of disease control and prevention (CDC), Parasites - Balantidiasis (also known as Balantidium coli Infection) (2016).
  28. Wise Health, Clinic of Complementary and Osteopathy Medicine, Classification of human parasites (2013).
  29. Dewey S. “Available at animal diversity, Hymenolepis diminuta”. Available at Echinococcus (2012).
  30. Kanungo R. “Available at Essentials of Medical parasitology”. 1st edition, Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (2014): 34.
  31. Arora BB. “Medical Parasitology”. 4th Edition, CBS publishers (2015): 285.
  32. Mona Ali and Emmaneul Edwar. “Parasitic contamination of fresh vegetables sold at the central market in Khartoum state Sudan”. Annais of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobails (2016).
  33. Ali El Bakri., et al. Intestinal parasite detection in assorted vegetables in the UNITED EMIRATES (2020).
Citation: Elsadig A Hag., et al. “Prevalence of Contamination of Fresh Vegetables Consumed at The Vegetable Markets in Khartoum locality, Sudan”. EC Microbiology 18.5 (2022): 61-68.

PubMed Indexed Article

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777

EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033

EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992

EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505

EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793

EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211

EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047

EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560

EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318

EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819

EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840

EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476

EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658

EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489

EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278

EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108

EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571

EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333

EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883

EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001

EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937

EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723

EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726

EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646

EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226

EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268

News and Events

December Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the November issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

ECronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before December 20, 2022.

Certificate of Publication

ECronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

ECronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.