Case Report
Volume 18 Issue 4 - 2022
Disseminated Cryptococcosis Caused by Cryptococcus albidus during HIV-AIDS and Literature Review
Kouakou Affoué Sandrine Josette1*, Kouabenan ASA2, Zika KD1, Karidioula YLC1, Gué IP2 and Adoubryn KD1
1Laboratory of Parasitology-Mycology, Medical School, Bouaké, Côte d’Ivoire
2Dermatology, Medical School, Bouaké, Côte d’Ivoire
*Corresponding Author: Kouakou Affoué Sandrine Josette, Laboratory of Parasitology-Mycology, Medical School, Bouaké, Côte d’Ivoire.
Received: October 11, 2021; Published: March 31, 2022




Abstract

The aim of our study is to report at first the only case of disseminated cryptococcosis caused by Cryptococcus albidus during AIDS revealed by a skin involvement in Bouaké and then to present an exhaustive review of the literature making the inventory of the infection with Cryptococcus albidus in immunocompromised HIV subjects.

A 44-year-old HIV-positive patient consults for skin involvement suspected of skin cryptococcosis. Mycological examinations of skin biopsy fragments and the cerebro-spinal fluid extension assessment revealed disseminated cryptococcosis due to Cryptococcus albidus in a patient with deep cell immunosuppression with TCD4 lymphocytes at 21 cells/mm3. The patient died after 7 days of monotherapy with fluconazole.

From 1996 to 2020 only four cases of Cryptococcus albidus infections during AIDS were published. There are 3 cases of invasive infections including two fungemias, one meningitis and one case of localized eye infection. Our case occurred in 2019, 5 years after the last publication. All organs can be affected with a predilection for the central nervous system and blood. The treatment is identical to that of forms due to Cryptococcus neoformans.

 

Keywords: Disseminated Cryptococcosis; Skin Involvement; HIV-AIDS; Cryptococcus albidus; Fluconazole; Bouaké-Côte d’Ivoire

 

References

  1. Khawcharoenporn T., et al. “Non-neoformans cryptococcal infections: a systematic review”. Infection2 (2007): 51-58.
  2. Radentz W H. “Opportunistic funga infections in immunocomprornised hosts”. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology6 (1989): 989-1003.
  3. Hoang JK and Burruss J. “Localized cutaneous Cryptococcus albidus infection in a 14-year-old boy on etanercept therapy”. Pediatric Dermatology3 (2007): 285-288.
  4. Bernal-Martinez L., et al. “Susceptibility profile of clinical isolates of non-Cryptococcus neoformans/non-Cryptococcus gattii Cryptococcus species and literature review”. Medical Mycology1 (2010): 90-96.
  5. Loison J., et al. “First report of Cryptococcus albidus septicaemia in an HIV patient”. The Journal of Infection2 (1996): 139-140.
  6. Kordossis T., et al. “First report of Cryptococcus laurentii meningitis and a fatal case of Cryptococcus albidus cryptococcaemia in AIDS patients”. Medical Mycology5 (1998): 335-339.
  7. Garelick JM., et al. “Scleral ulceration caused by Cryptococcus albidus in a patient with acquired immune deficiency syndrome”. Cornea7 (2004): 730-731.
  8. Liu Y., et al. “Cryptococcus albidus encephalitis in newly diagnosed HIV-patient and literature review”. Medical Mycology Case Report 3 (2014): 8-10.
  9. Park SS., et al. “A Case of Disseminated Infection with Skin Manifestation due to Non-neoformans and Non-gattii Cryptococcus in a Patient with Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia”. Infection and Chemotherapy2 (2017): 142-145.
  10. Lee YA., et al. “First report of Cryptococcus albidus-induced disseminated cryptococcosis in a renal transplant recipient”. The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine1 (2004): 53-57.
  11. Endo JO, et al. “Generalized Cryptococcus albidus in an immunosuppressed patient with palmopustular psoriasis”. Cutis 3 (2011): 129-132.
  12. Smith FL., et al. “Primary cutaneous cryptococcosis presenting as an extensive eroded plaque”. Cutis 3 (2017): 16-18.
  13. Arendrup MC., et al. “ESCMID and ECMM joint clinical guidelines for the diagnosis and management of rare invasive yeast infections”. Clinical Microbiology and Infection: The Official Publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases3 (2014): S76-S98.
  14. Grillot R. Les mycoses humaines: Démarche diagnostique. Elsevier Masson (1996).
  15. Rachat TS and Janssens J-P. “Systemic and oropharyngeal side effects of inhaled corticosteroids”. Revue Medicale Suisse363 (2012): 2219-2223.
  16. Shafer RW., et al. “Possible risk of steroid administration in patients at risk for AIDS”. Lancet8434 (1985): 934-935.
  17. Molloy SF., et al. “Antifungal Combinations for Treatment of Cryptococcal Meningitis in Africa”. New England Journal of Medicine11 (2018): 1004-1017.
  18. Dromer F and Lortholary O. “Cryptococcose”. EMC (Elsevier Masson SAS, Paris) Maladies infectieuses (2004).
Citation: Kouakou Affoué Sandrine Josette., et al. “Disseminated Cryptococcosis Caused by Cryptococcus albidus during HIV-AIDS and Literature Review”. EC Microbiology 18.4 (2022): 66-71.

PubMed Indexed Article


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777


EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033


EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992


EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505


EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793


EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211


EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047


EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560


EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318


EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819


EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840


EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476


EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658


EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489


EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278


EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108


EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571


EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333


EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883


EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001


EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937


EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723


EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726


EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646


EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226


EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268


News and Events


June Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the June issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

ECronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before July 14, 2022.

Certificate of Publication

ECronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

ECronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.