Review Article
Volume 17 Issue 9 - 2021
Nanotechnological Applications of Green Iron Oxide Nanoparticles (IONPs): A Review
Nimali N Prabhu*
Ex-Postdoctoral Fellow, DST-SERB Young Scientist, Department of Biological Sciences, BITS-Pilani, KK Birla Goa Campus, Zuarinagar, Vasco- Goa, India
*Corresponding Author: Nimali N Prabhu, Ex-Postdoctoral Fellow, DST-SERB Young Scientist, BITS-Pilani KK Birla, Goa Campus, Zuarinagar, Vasco-Goa, India.
Received: July 19, 2021; Published: August 30, 2021


In the past twenty years, scientists worldwide have been taking extreme interest in synthesizing green metallic nanoparticles (NPs). Various plant based synthesis protocols have been devised and different dimensions of NPs applications have been explored. A lot of research has already been published on the synthesis of metallic NPs. Currently, scaling up process for the commercialization of these NPs is at the prime focus. The rapid and cost-effective synthesis of metallic NPs especially, iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) have opened up new avenues. This review article mainly emphasizes on the role of IONPs synthesized using different plant extracts for diverse nanotechnological applications.

Keywords: Synthesis; Iron Oxide Nanoparticles; Applications; Bioremediation; Biomedical


  1. Latha N and Gowri M. “Biosynthesis and characterisation of Fe3O4 nanoparticles using Caricaya papaya leaves extract”. International Journal of Science and Research11 (2012): 1551-1556.
  2. Ahmad N., et al. “Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles from Desmodium triflorum: a novel approach towards weed utilization”. Biotechnology Research International 2011 (2010): 454090.
  3. Niraimathee VA., et al. “Green synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles from Mimosa pudica root extract”. International Journal of Environment and Sustainable Development3 (2016): 227-240.
  4. Mahdavian AR and Mirrahimi MA. “Efficient separation of heavy metal cations by anchoring polyacrylic acid on superparamagnetic magnetite nanoparticles through surface modification”. Chemical Engineering Journal1- 3 (2010): 264-271.
  5. Hu FQ., et al. “Preparation of biocompatible magnetite nanocrystals for in vivo magnetic resonance detection of cancer”. Advanced Materials19 (2006): 2553-2556.
  6. Blakemore R. “Magnetotactic bacteria”. Science4212 (1975): 377-379.
  7. Prabhu NN and Kowshik M. “Magnetosomes: the bionanomagnets and its potential use in biomedical applications”. Journal of Nanomedicine Research3 (2016): 00057.
  8. Balamurugan M., et al. “Synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles by using Eucalyptus globulus plant extract”. e-Journal of Surface Science and Nanotechnology 12 (2014): 363-367.
  9. Sathishkumar M., et al. “Immobilization of silver nanoparticles synthesized using Curcuma longa tuber powder and extract on cotton cloth for bactericidal activity”. Bioresource Technology20 (2010): 7958-7965.
  10. Rai M., et al. “CRC 675-Current trends in phytosynthesis of metal nanoparticles”. Critical Reviews in Biotechnology4 (2008): 277-284.
  11. Venkateswarlu S., et al. “Bio-inspired green synthesis of Fe3O4 spherical magnetic nanoparticles using Syzygium cumini seed extract”. Physica B 449 (2014): 67-71.
  12. Mittal AK., et al. “Synthesis of metallic nanoparticles using plant extracts”. Biotechnology Advances2 (2013): 346-356.
  13. Kumar V and Yadav SK. “Plant‐mediated synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles and their applications”. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology 84 (2009): 151-157.
  14. Shahwan T., et al. “Green synthesis of iron nanoparticles and their application as Fenton-like catalyst for the degradation of aqueous cationic and anionic dyes”. Chemical Engineering Journal1 (2011): 258-266.
  15. Ge L., et al. “Nanosilver particles in medical applications: synthesis, performance and toxicity”. International Journal of Nanomedicine 9 (2014): 2399-2407.
  16. Zayed MF., et al. “Malva parviflora extract assisted green synthesis of silver nanoparticles”. Spectrochimica Acta Part A; Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy 98 (2012): 423-428.
  17. Njagi EC., et al. “Biosynthesis of iron and silver nanoparticles at room temperature using aqueous Sorghum Bran extracts”. Langmuir1 (2011): 264-271.
  18. Izadiyan Z., et al. “Cytotoxic assay of plant-mediated synthesized iron oxide nanoparticles using Juglans regia green husk extract”. Arabian Journal of Chemistry1 (2020): 2011-2023.
  19. Shameli K., et al. “Green synthesis of silver/montmorillonite/chitosan bionanocomposites using the UV irradiation method and evaluation of antibacterial activity”. International Journal of Nanomedicine 5 (2010): 875-887.
  20. Gupta AK and Gupta M. “Synthesis and surface engineering of iron oxide nanoparticles for biomedical applications”. Biomaterials18 (2005): 3995-4021.
  21. Lachheb H., et al. “Photocatalytic degradation of various types of dyes (Alizarin S, Crocein Orange G, Methyl red, Congo red, Methylene blue) in water by UV-irradiated titania”. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental1 (2002): 75-90.
  22. Ali H., et al. “Environmental chemistry and ecotoxicology of hazardous heavy metals: environmental persistence, toxicity, and bioaccumulation”. Journal of Chemistry (2019): 6730305.
  23. Mohan D and Pittman CU. “Activated Carbons and Low Cost Adsorbents for Remediation of Tri- and Hexavalent Chromium from Water”. Journal of Hazardous Materials2 (2006): 762-811.
  24. Covaliu CI., et al. “Synthesis and characterization of a hydroxyapatite coated magnetite for potential cancer treatment”. Revista de Chimie12 (2009): 1254.
  25. Matei E., et al. “Properties of magnetic iron oxides used as materials for wastewater treatment”. Journal of Physics: Conference Series 304 (2011): 012022.
  26. Wei Y., et al. “Green synthesis of Fe nanoparticles using Citrus maxima peels aqueous extracts”. Materials Letters 185 (2016): 384-386.
  27. Parajuli K., et al. “Green synthesis of magnetite nanoparticles using aqueous leaves extracts of Azadirachta indica and its application for the removal of As(V) from water”. Green and Sustainable Chemistry 10 (2020): 117-132.
  28. Chen W., et al. “Arsenic removal by iron-modified activated carbon”. Water Research 9 (2007): 1851-1858.
  29. Xin H., et al. “Biosynthesis of iron nanoparticles using Tie Guanyin tea extract for degradation of bromothymol blue”. Journal of Nanotechnology (2016): 4059591.
  30. Bhuiyan MSH., et al. “Green synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles using Carica papaya leaf extract: application for photocatalytic degradation of remazol yellow RR dye and antibacterial activity”. Heliyon 6 (2020): e04603.
  31. Kuang Y., et al. “Heterogeneous Fenton-like oxidation of monochlorobenzene using green synthesis of iron nanoparticles”. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 410 (2013): 67-73.
  32. Prabhu NN and Kowshik M. “Green route synthesis and preliminary characterization of iron oxide nanoparticles using leaf extract of Ocimum tenuiflorum”. Journal of Applied Material Science and Engieering Research 1 (2019): 1-5.
  33. Saranya S., et al. “Green synthesis of iron nanoparticles using aqueous extract of Musa ornata flower sheath against pathogenic bacteria”. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 5 (2017): 688-694.
  34. Sravanthi M., et al. “Green synthesis and characterization of iron oxide nanoparticles using Wrightia tinctoria leaf extract and their antibacterial studies”. International Journal of Current Research and Academic Review8 (2016): 30-44.
  35. Nielsen OS., et al. “A future for hyperthermia in cancer treatment?”. European Journal of Cancer13 (2001): 1587-1589.
  36. Gordon RT., et al. “Intracellular hyperthermia. A biophysical approach to cancer treatment via intracellular temperature and biophysical alterations”. Medical Hypotheses 5 (1979): 83-102.
  37. Chouly C., et al. “Development of superparamagnetic nanoparticles for MRI: effect of particles size, charge and surface nature on biodistribution”. Journal of Microencapsulation 13 (1996): 245-255.
  38. Govindan B., et al. “Designed synthesis of nanostructured magnetic hydroxyapatite based nanocarrier for anti-cancer drug delivery towards the treatment of human epidermoid carcinoma”. Nanomaterials6 (2017): 138.
  39. Alexiou C., et al. “Targeting cancer cells: magnetic nanoparticles as drug carriers”. European Biophysics Journal 5 (2006): 446-450.
  40. Zhao M., et al. “Non-invasive detection of apoptosis using magnetic resonance imaging and a targeted contrast agent”. Nature Medicine 7 (2001): 1241-1244.
  41. Thompson CB. “Apoptosis in the pathogenesis and treatment of disease”. Science 267 (1995): 1456-1462.
  42. Bulte JW., et al. “Magnetodendrimers allow endosomal magnetic labelling and in vivo tracking of stem cells”. Nature Biotechnology 19 (2001): 1141-1147.
  43. Scherer F., et al. “Magnetofection enhancing and targeting gene delivery by magnetic force in vitro and in vivo”. Gene Therapy 9 (2002): 102-109.
  44. Krotz F., et al. “Magnetofection potentiates gene delivery to cultured endothelial cells”. Journal of Vascular Research5 (2003): 425-434.
  45. Olsvik O., et al. “Magnetic separation techniques in diagnostic microbiology”. Clinical Microbiology Reviews1 (1994): 43-54.
  46. Yeh TC., et al. “Intracellular labelling of T-cells with superparamagnetic contrast agents”. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine5 (1993): 617-625.
  47. Weissleder R., et al. “Magnetically labelled cells can be detected by MR imaging”. Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging1 (1997): 258-263.
Citation: Nimali N Prabhu. “Nanotechnological Applications of Green Iron Oxide Nanoparticles (IONPs): A Review”. EC Microbiology 17.9 (2021): 32-37.

PubMed Indexed Article

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777

EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033

EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992

EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505

EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793

EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211

EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047

EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560

EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318

EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819

EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840

EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476

EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658

EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489

EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278

EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108

EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571

EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333

EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883

EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001

EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937

EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723

EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726

EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646

EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226

EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268

News and Events

November Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the November issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

ECronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before December 15, 2022.

Certificate of Publication

ECronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

ECronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.