Research Article
Volume 17 Issue 3 - 2021
Phenotypic and Genotypic Patterns of Antimicrobial Resistant Strains of Acinetobacter baumannii at Hospital Settings, Khartoum State, Sudan
Khairy M Ali1*, Ali H Ali1, Muath A Ali1, Samira H Hamza1, Shihap M Hassan1, Weam A Osman1, Enas A Osman2 and Yousof S Yousof2
1Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Elrazi University, Khartoum State, Sudan
2Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medical Laboratory Sciences, International University of Africa, Khartoum State, Sudan
*Corresponding Author:Khairy M Ali, Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Elrazi University, Khartoum State, Sudan.
Received: January 27, 2020; Published: February 27, 2021


Background: Acinetobacter baumannii is undoubtedly one of the most clinically important pathogens causing nosocomial infections worldwide. It is difficult to control, and the infections caused by it are difficult to treat, due to its variable mechanisms for resistance.

Objective: This study was aimed to assess the phenotypic and genotypic patterns of antimicrobial resistant strains of Acinetobacter baumannii at hospital settings, Khartoum, Sudan.

Methodology: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted to assess resistance rate of Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates. Thirty six A. baumannii clinical isolates were collected in nutrient agar slope and re-identified using standard bacteriological techniques. Then, antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done using modified- Kirby Bauer method. Molecular techniques were applied using both multiplex and conventional polymerase chain reaction to detect the presence of genes associated with phenotypic resistant traits; extended-spectrum B-lactamase and carbapenems.

Results: A total resistance (100%) to Ciprofloxacin, Gentamicin, Amoxicillin, Ampicillin, Ceftazidime and Ceftriaxone was reported. High resistance rate was observed in both sulfamethoxazole and imipenem with 88% and 47%, respectively. All isolated strains were extended-spectrum B-lactamase. blaTEM gene was detected in all ESBL strains whereas blaCTXM9 gene detected only in 2 strains with the complete absence of blaSHV gene in this study. In carbapenemase genes, blaOXA48 was the most common carbapenemase detected in 14(82%) followed by blaNDM 12 (70%) then blaGES and blaVIM with 5 (29%), 3 (17%) respectively. Several isolates co-harbored more than one carbapenemase genes: (blaNDM and blaOXA48), (blaNDM and blaGES), (blaOXA48 and blaGES), (blaNDM and blaVIM), (blaOXA48 and blaVIM) and (blaGES and blaVIM), 9 (52%), 4 (23%), 4 (23%), 2 (11%), 2 (11%) and 1 (5%), respectively. Colistin was the major therapeutic option for all resistant strains with sensitivity (100%).

Conclusion: All A. baumannii collected from hospitals of Khartoum state were phenotypically ESBL and 47% were imipenem resistant. The blaTEM gene was found to be the most prevalent type (100%) of β-lactamase-encoding gene, a high level of imipenem resistance is mediated by oxa48, NDM and as following: 82% and 70% respectively. All isolates were sensitive to Colistin.


Keyword: Acinetobacter baumannii; Nosocomial Infections; Extended-Spectrum B-Lactamase; Therapeutic Option


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Citation: Khairy M Ali., et al. “Phenotypic and Genotypic Patterns of Antimicrobial Resistant Strains of Acinetobacter baumannii at Hospital Settings, Khartoum State, Sudan”. EC Microbiology 17.3 (2021): 44-54.

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