Review Article
Volume 17 Issue 2 - 2021
Minimizing the Risks, Prevention, and Management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Long Time Sequelae
Rasha Khaled Sendy1*, Bushra Abdulhameed Alsaif2, Wid Ameer Nawab3, Abdulaziz Mohammed Alsoumali4, Mohammed Abdullah A Alageeli3, Shahd Mohammed Bamagos5, Taherah Basim Hamoud6, Tammani Mohsen Alghamdi7, Ahmed Yousef Attiah8, Fahad Mohammed Al Wadai9, Samer Hatim S Nakiti3 and Esraa Ahmed Akili3
1King Fahad General Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
2Primary Health Care Centers, First Health Cluster in Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia
3Ibn Sina National College, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
4King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
5Umm Alqura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia
6Jubail General Hospital, Jubail, Saudi Arabia
7Batterjee Medical College, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
8Salam Medical Services, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
9King Khaled University, Abha, Saudi Arabia
*Corresponding Author: Rasha Khaled Sendy, Medical Registrar, King Fahad General Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
Received: January 11, 2021; Published: January 19, 2021




Abstract

Introduction: The impact of diabetes on quality of life and health care costs is affected by numerous factors in addition to diabetes-associated complications. Microvascular, macrovascular and distal symmetric polyneuropathy (DSPN) are the most common neurologic complication and a major cause of morbidity in diabetic patients.

Aim of the Work: Minimizing the risk, prevention, and management of long-term complications of diabetes mellitus will be addressed in this review.

Methods: This article is a non-systematic, non-analytic literature review of medical literature.

Conclusion: Ongoing evaluation should include history taking and physical examination 2 - 4 times per year. Hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, smoking and 75 - 162 daily aspirin are recommended in patients with, or at high risk for ASCVD.

Bariatric surgery can reduce neuropathy incidence and lifestyle interventions are essential to prevent onset and slow progression of neuropathy. Duloxetine, venlafaxine, amitriptyline, pregabalin and gabapentin are the first-line agents for pain management.

Keywords: Diabetes Mellitus; Chronic Complications; Risks; Management

References

  1. Diabetes Data and Statistics.
  2. Dieleman JL., et al. “US Spending on Personal Health Care and Public Health, 1996-2013”. The Journal of the American Medical Association 316 (2016): 2627.
  3. Kan C., et al. “A systematic review and meta-analysis of the association between depression and insulin resistance”. Diabetes Care 36 (2013): 480.
  4. American Diabetes Association. “Economic Costs of Diabetes in the U.S. in 2017”. Diabetes Care 41 (2018): 917.
  5. Diabetes Control and Complications Trial Research Group Nathan DM., et al. “The effect of intensive treatment of diabetes on the development and progression of long-term complications in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus”. The New England Journal of Medicine (1993).
  6. Nathan DM., et al. “Intensive diabetes treatment and cardiovascular disease in patients with type 1 diabetes”. The New England Journal of Medicine 353 (2005): 2643.
  7. Harris MI., et al. “Onset of NIDDM occurs at least 4-7 yr before clinical diagnosis”. Diabetes Care 15 (1992): 815.
  8. Gregg EW., et al. “Changes in diabetes-related complications in the United States, 1990-2010”. The New England Journal of Medicine 370 (2014): 1514.
  9. Kennon B., et al. “Reduced incidence of lower-extremity amputations in people with diabetes in Scotland: a nationwide study”. Diabetes Care 35 (2012): 2588.
  10. Willis JR., et al. “Vision-Related Functional Burden of Diabetic Retinopathy Across Severity Levels in the United States”. JAMA Ophthalmology 135 (2017): 926.
  11. American Diabetes Association. 11. Microvascular Complications and Foot Care: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes-2020”. Diabetes Care 43 (2020): S135.
  12. Mogensen CE., et al. “Microalbuminuria and potential confounders. A review and some observations on variability of urinary albumin excretion”. Diabetes Care 18 (1995): 572.
  13. Qaseem A., et al. “Screening, monitoring, and treatment of stage 1 to 3 chronic kidney disease: A clinical practice guideline from the American College of Physicians”. Annals of Internal Medicine 159 (2013): 835.
  14. American Diabetes Association. 10. Cardiovascular Disease and Risk Management: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes-2020”. Diabetes Care 43 (2020): S111.
  15. American Diabetes Association. 6. Glycemic Targets: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes-2020”. Diabetes Care 43 (2020): S66.
  16. Wei N., et al. “Empirically establishing blood glucose targets to achieve HbA1c goals”. Diabetes Care 37 (2014): 1048.
  17. Seshasai SR., et al. “Diabetes mellitus, fasting glucose, and risk of cause-specific death”. The New England Journal of Medicine 364 (2011): 829.
  18. Fan AZ., et al. “Trends in cigarette smoking rates and quit attempts among adults with and without diagnosed diabetes, United States, 2001-2010”. Preventing Chronic Disease 10 (2013): E160.
  19. Yudkin JS. “How can we best prolong life? Benefits of coronary risk factor reduction in non-diabetic and diabetic subjects”. British Medical Journal 306 (1993): 1313.
  20. ASCEND Study Collaborative Group, Bowman L, et al. “Effects of Aspirin for Primary Prevention in Persons with Diabetes Mellitus”. The New England Journal of Medicine 379 (2018): 1529.
  21. Antithrombotic Trialists’ Collaboration. “Collaborative meta-analysis of randomised trials of antiplatelet therapy for prevention of death, myocardial infarction, and stroke in high risk patients”. British Medical Journal 324 (2002): 71.
  22. Kunutsor SK., et al. “Aspirin for primary prevention of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality events in diabetes: updated meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials”. Diabetic Medicine 34 (2017): 316.
  23. Ikeda Y., et al. “Low-dose aspirin for primary prevention of cardiovascular events in Japanese patients 60 years or older with atherosclerotic risk factors: a randomized clinical trial”. The Journal of the American Medical Association 312 (2014): 2510.
  24. Chew EY., et al. “Effects of aspirin on vitreous/preretinal hemorrhage in patients with diabetes mellitus. Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study report no. 20”. Archives of Ophthalmology 113 (1995): 52.
  25. Whelton PK., et al. “ACC/AHA/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/AGS/APhA/ASH/ASPC/NMA/PCNA Guideline for the Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Management of High Blood Pressure in Adults: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American (2017).
  26. Pop-Busui R., et al. “Diabetic Neuropathy: A Position Statement by the American Diabetes Association”. Diabetes Care 40 (2017): 136.
  27. Callaghan BC., et al. “Enhanced glucose control for preventing and treating diabetic neuropathy”. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (2012): CD007543.
  28. Cortez M., et al. “Glucose intolerance, metabolic syndrome, and neuropathy”. The Handbook of Clinical Neurology 126 (2014): 109.
  29. Müller-Stich BP., et al. “Gastric bypass leads to improvement of diabetic neuropathy independent of glucose normalization--results of a prospective cohort study (DiaSurg 1 study)”. Annals of Surgery 258 (2013): 760.
  30. Davies M., et al. “The prevalence, severity, and impact of painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy in type 2 diabetes”. Diabetes Care 29 (2006): 1518.
  31. Young RJ., et al. “Chronic and remitting painful diabetic polyneuropathy. Correlations with clinical features and subsequent changes in neurophysiology”. Diabetes Care 11 (1988): 34.
  32. Griebeler ML., et al. “Pharmacologic interventions for painful diabetic neuropathy: An umbrella systematic review and comparative effectiveness network meta-analysis”. Annals of Internal Medicine 161 (2014): 639.
Citation: Rasha Khaled Sendy., et al. “Minimizing the Risks, Prevention, and Management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Long Time Sequelae”. EC Microbiology 17.2 (2021): 208-215.

PubMed Indexed Article


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777


EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033


EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992


EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505


EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793


EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211


EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047


EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560


EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318


EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819


EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840


EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476


EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658


EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489


EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278


EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108


EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571


EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333


EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883


EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001


EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937


EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723


EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726


EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646


EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226


EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268


News and Events


April Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the April issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for upcoming Issue

Ecronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before April 26, 2021.

Certificate of Publication

Ecronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

Ecronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.

Immediate Assistance

The prime motto of this team is to clarify all the queries without any delay or hesitation to avoid the inconvenience. For immediate assistance on your queries please don't hesitate to drop an email to editor@ecronicon.uk