Research Article
Volume 17 Issue 1 - 2021
The Association Between COVID-19 and Hypertension: A Literature Review
Sami Bilal1*, Mohmed Basalama2, Abdelrahman Raghamtalla3, Ziyad Alghofaili4, Abdullah Alburayh5, Mohammed Alqahtani6, Hamza Bukhari7, Ahmed Alobaidi8, Sara Albloushi9 and Samar Baloush10
1Consultant of Internal Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, King Fahad Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
2Internal Medicine Specialist, Department of Internal Medicine, King Fahad Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
3Al Qunfudah Makhshush Primary Health Center, Ministry of Health, Al Qunfudah, Saudi Arabia
4College of Medicine, Imam Muhammad Ibn Saud Islamic University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
5College of Pharmacy, Qassim Univeristy, Qassim, Saudi Arabia
6College of Medicine, King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia
7College of Medicine, University of Jeddah, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
8College of Medicine, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia
9College of Medicine, Ibn Sina National College, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
10College of Medicine, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
*Corresponding Author: Sami Bilal, Consultant of Internal Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, King Fahad Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
Received: November 11, 2020; Published: December 31, 2020




Abstract

Hypertension is a highly prevalent disorder and is estimated to affect at least one in every four individuals. Developing hypertension is mostly dependant on the patient’s lifestyle. It was reported among the comorbidities that were reported with the severity of COVID-19 infection. Reports showed that it is the commonest comorbidity that is associated with COVID-19 infection and severity. The prevalence of hypertension in COVID-19 patients is hugely variable and a rate of 15 - 35% has been reported by various investigations. Moreover, hypertensive patients are most prone to develop severe complications. The presence of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases were associated with increasing the risk of mortality by 2 - 3 times. Many reports estimated a significant association between hypertension and other comorbidities and mortality among COVID-19 patients. Additionally, the effect of hypertension is exaggerated when present with other co-morbidities as diabetes. Regarding the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors administration for controlling blood pressure in hypertensive COVID-19 patients, available data showed that no significant side effects were associated with these types of drugs. In fact, a previous report showed that RAAS inhibitors were significantly associated with reduced COVID-19 risks for developing severe disorders and death. Therefore, all theoretical approaches about the harmful effects of RAAS inhibitors when associated with COVID-19 infection should be ignored.

Keywords: Hypertension; COVID-19; Angiotensin; RAAS Inhibitors; Blood Pressure; Cardiovascular

References

  1. Riou J and Althaus CL. “Pattern of early human-to-human transmission of Wuhan 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)”. Euro Surveillance: Bulletin European sur les Maladies Transmissible = European Communicable Disease Bulletin4 (2020): 2000058.
  2. Jastaniah W. “Epidemiology of sickle cell disease in Saudi Arabia”. Annals of Saudi Medicine 3 (2011): 289-293.
  3. Spiteri G., et al. “First cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the WHO European Region”. Euro Surveillance: Bulletin European sur les Maladies Transmissible = European Communicable Disease Bulletin9 (2020).
  4. Chan JWM., et al. “Short term outcome and risk factors for adverse clinical outcomes in adults with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)”. Thorax8 (2003): 686-689.
  5. Badawi A and Ryoo SG. “Prevalence of comorbidities in the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV): a systematic review and meta-analysis”. International Journal of Infectious Diseases 49 (2016): 129-133.
  6. Ge H., et al. “The epidemiology and clinical information about COVID-19”. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases 6 (2020): 1011-1019.
  7. Chen J., et al. “COVID-19 infection: the China and Italy perspectives”. Cell Death and Disease6 (2020): 438.
  8. Zu Z., et al. “Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): A Perspective from China”. Radiology 296 (2020): 200490.
  9. Tian S., et al. “Characteristics of COVID-19 infection in Beijing”. Journal of Infection 4 (2020): 401-406.
  10. Gupta A., et al. “Extrapulmonary manifestations of COVID-19”. Nature Medicine7 (2020): 1017-1032.
  11. Hall G., et al. “A tale of two pandemics: How will COVID-19 and global trends in physical inactivity and sedentary behavior affect one another?” Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases (2020).
  12. Aloysius MM., et al. “COVID-19 presenting as acute pancreatitis”. Pancreatology5 (2020): 1026-1027.
  13. Gulati A., et al. “A Comprehensive Review of Manifestations of Novel Coronaviruses in the Context of Deadly COVID-19 Global Pandemic”. The American Journal of the Medical Sciences 1 (2020): 5-34.
  14. Qian JY., et al. “Acute Kidney Injury in the 2019 Novel Coronavirus Disease”. Kidney Diseases5 (2020): 318-323.
  15. Guan W-J., et al. “Comorbidity and its impact on 1590 patients with COVID-19 in China: a nationwide analysis”. European Respiratory Journal 5 (2020): 2000547.
  16. Guo T., et al. “Cardiovascular Implications of Fatal Outcomes of Patients With Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)”. JAMA Cardiology 7 (2020): 811-888.
  17. Lian J., et al. “Analysis of Epidemiological and Clinical Features in Older Patients With Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Outside Wuhan”. Clinical Infectious Diseases 15 (2020): 740-747.
  18. Shi S., et al. “Association of Cardiac Injury With Mortality in Hospitalized Patients With COVID-19 in Wuhan, China”. JAMA Cardiology (2020): 5.
  19. Wang D., et al. “Clinical Characteristics of 138 Hospitalized Patients With 2019 Novel Coronavirus–Infected Pneumonia in Wuhan, China”. The Journal of the American Medical Association 11 (2020): 1061-1069.
  20. Zhang J., et al. “Association of hypertension with the severity and fatality of SARS-CoV-2 infection: A meta-analysis”. Epidemiology and Infection 148 (2020): e106.
  21. Zhou F., et al. “Clinical course and risk factors for mortality of adult inpatients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: a retrospective cohort study”. The Lancet (2020): 395.
  22. Ni W., et al. “Role of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in COVID-19”. Critical Care1 (2020): 422.
  23. Chen T., et al. “Clinical characteristics of 113 deceased patients with coronavirus disease 2019: retrospective study”. British Medical Journal 368 (2020): m1091.
  24. Deng Y., et al. “Clinical characteristics of fatal and recovered cases of coronavirus disease 2019 in Wuhan, China: a retrospective study”. Chinese Medical Journal11 (2020): 1261-1267.
  25. Duan Y., et al. “Effectiveness of home blood pressure telemonitoring: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled studies”. Journal of Human Hypertension7 (2017): 427-437.
  26. Kumara WA., et al. “Prevalence and risk factors for resistant hypertension among hypertensive patients from a developing country”. BMC Research Notes 6 (2013): 373.
  27. Warburton DER and Bredin SSD. “Health benefits of physical activity: a systematic review of current systematic reviews”. Current Opinion in Cardiology5 (2017): 541-556.
  28. Li B., et al. “Prevalence and impact of cardiovascular metabolic diseases on COVID-19 in China”. Clinical Research in Cardiology5 (2020): 531-538.
  29. Wu C., et al. “Risk Factors Associated With Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome and Death in Patients With Coronavirus Disease 2019 Pneumonia in Wuhan, China”. JAMA Internal Medicine 7 (2020): 934-943.
  30. Yang J., et al. “Prevalence of comorbidities and its effects in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2: a systematic review and meta-analysis”. International Journal of Infectious Diseases 94 (2020): 91-95.
  31. Guan W-J., et al. “Clinical Characteristics of Coronavirus Disease 2019 in China”. New England Journal of Medicine18 (2020): 1708-1720.
  32. Emami A., et al. “Prevalence of Underlying Diseases in Hospitalized Patients with COVID-19: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis”. Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine 1 (2020): e35.
  33. Yang X., et al. “Clinical course and outcomes of critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a single-centered, retrospective, observational study”. The Lancet Respiratory Medicine 5 (2020): 475-481.
  34. Du Y., et al. “Clinical Features of 85 Fatal Cases of COVID-19 from Wuhan. A Retrospective Observational Study”. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 11 (2020): 1372-1379.
  35. Simonnet A., et al. “High Prevalence of Obesity in Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) Requiring Invasive Mechanical Ventilation”. Obesity7 (2020): 1195-1199.
  36. Li X., et al. “Risk factors for severity and mortality in adult COVID-19 inpatients in Wuhan”. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 1 (2020): 110-118.
  37. Qingxian C., et al. “Obesity and COVID-19 Severity in a Designated Hospital in Shenzhen, China”. Diabetes Care 43 (2020): dc200576.
  38. Bunyavanich S., et al. “Nasal Gene Expression of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 in Children and Adults”. The Journal of the American Medical Association 23 (2020): 2427-2429.
  39. Wang Z., et al. “Status of Hypertension in China”. Circulation22 (2018): 2344-2356.
  40. Vaduganathan M., et al. “Renin–Angiotensin–Aldosterone System Inhibitors in Patients with Covid-19”. New England Journal of Medicine 17 (2020): 1653-1659.
  41. Zhou P., et al. “A pneumonia outbreak associated with a new coronavirus of probable bat origin”. Nature7793 (2020): 270-273.
  42. Hamming I., et al. “Tissue distribution of ACE2 protein, the functional receptor for SARS coronavirus. A first step in understanding SARS pathogenesis”. The Journal of Pathology 2 (2004): 631-637.
  43. Sungnak W., et al. “SARS-CoV-2 entry factors are highly expressed in nasal epithelial cells together with innate immune genes”. Nature Medicine5 (2020): 681-687.
  44. Benigni A., et al. “Angiotensin II revisited: new roles in inflammation, immunology and aging”. EMBO Molecular Medicine 7 (2010): 247-257.
  45. Dandona P., et al. “Angiotensin II and inflammation: the effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition and angiotensin II receptor blockade”. Journal of Human Hypertension1 (2007): 20-27.
  46. Kuba K., et al. “A crucial role of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in SARS coronavirus–induced lung injury”. Nature Medicine 8 (2005): 875-879.
  47. Esler M and Esler D. “Can angiotensin receptor-blocking drugs perhaps be harmful in the COVID-19 pandemic?” Journal of Hypertension5 (2020): 781-782.
  48. South AM., et al. “Controversies of renin–angiotensin system inhibition during the COVID-19 pandemic”. Nature Reviews Nephrology6 (2020): 305-307.
  49. Ran J., et al. “Blood pressure control and adverse outcomes of COVID-19 infection in patients with concomitant hypertension in Wuhan, China”. Hypertension Research11 (2020): 1267-1276.
  50. Mancia G., et al. “Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System Blockers and the Risk of Covid-19”. New England Journal of Medicine25 (2020): 2431-2440.
  51. Zhang P., et al. “Association of Inpatient Use of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors and Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers With Mortality Among Patients With Hypertension Hospitalized With COVID-19”. Circulation Research 12 (2020): 1671-1681.
  52. Fosbøl EL., et al. “Association of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitor or Angiotensin Receptor Blocker Use With COVID-19 Diagnosis and Mortality”. The Journal of the American Medical Association 2 (2020): 168-177.
  53. Iaccarino G., et al. “Renin-Angiotensin System Inhibition in Cardiovascular Patients at the Time of COVID19: Much Ado for Nothing? A Statement of Activity from the Directors of the Board and the Scientific Directors of the Italian Society of Hypertension”. High Blood Pressure and Cardiovascular Prevention 2 (2020): 105-108.
Citation: Sami Bilal., et al. “The Association Between COVID-19 and Hypertension: A Literature Review”. EC Microbiology 17.1 (2021): December 31.

PubMed Indexed Article


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777


EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033


EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992


EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505


EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793


EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211


EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047


EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560


EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318


EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819


EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840


EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476


EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658


EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489


EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278


EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108


EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571


EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333


EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883


EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001


EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937


EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723


EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726


EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646


EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226


EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268


News and Events


March Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the March issue of respective journals and can be viewed in the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for April Issue

Ecronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the April issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before March 18, 2021.

Certificate of Publication

Ecronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

Ecronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.

Immediate Assistance

The prime motto of this team is to clarify all the queries without any delay or hesitation to avoid the inconvenience. For immediate assistance on your queries please don't hesitate to drop an email to editor@ecronicon.uk