Mini Review
Volume 16 Issue 10 - 2020
Characterization of the Host Receptor Binding by the Severe Acute Respiratory Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), SARS-CoV and the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV)
Yusra Binte Sikandar, Syeda Muntaka Maniha, Waziha Islam Taaseen and Rashed Noor*
School of Life Sciences (SLS), Independent University, Bangladesh (IUB), Bashundhara, Dhaka, Bangladesh
*Corresponding Author: Rashed Noor, Associate Professor (Microbiology), School of Environment and Life Sciences (SELS), Independent University, Bangladesh (IUB), Bashundhara, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
Received: May 23, 2020; Published: September 10, 2020


Current global COVID-19 pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is of the emergency public health concern. Prior to SARS-CoV-2 infection, the epidemics caused by the acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and by the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) were noticed. Therefore, unravelling the pathogenesis scheme of these β-coronaviruses is of major clinical significance of which the mechanism of viral entry demands the foremost focus. The first and foremost strategy of the viral pathogenicity into the host mostly relies on its entry into the host cell as revealed by the identification of the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in case of the ongoing COVID-19 disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 and by the previous etiological agent SARS-CoV. In case of the initiation of the MERS-CoV infection, the dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) was discovered as the host receptor. Since all these receptors play important biochemical and immunological roles on triggering the viral infectivity, current review highlighted on these receptor proteins in a comparative way between these three viruses.

Keywords: Severe acute respiratory coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2); SARS-CoV; The Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS); Angiotensin- Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE 2) Receptor; Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4 (DPP4) Receptor


  1. Asaduzzaman SA., et al “A comparative study between the severe acute respiratory syndrome‑coronavirus‑2, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus, and the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus”. Methods in Molecular Biology 1282 (2015): 1-23.
  2. WHO (World Health Organization) Coronavirus diseases (COVID-19) Dashboard. Updated 2:45 pm CEST, 5 September 2020. https:// Accessed on 6 September 2020.
  3. Chan JF., et al. “Genomic characterization of the 2019 novel human-pathogenic coronavirus isolated from a patient with atypical pneumonia after visiting Wuhan”. Emerging Microbes and Infections 1 (2020): 221-236.
  4. Noor R and Maniha SM. "A brief Outline of Respiratory Viral Disease Outbreaks: 1889 – Till Date on the Public Health Perspectives". VirusDis 2020. Online First. DOI: 10.1007/s13337-020-00628-5. .
  5. Noor R. "Anti-viral drugs against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection triggering the COVID-19 pandemic". Tzu Chi Med J. 2020: in press. doi: 10.4103/tcmj.tcmj_100_20.
  6. Maniha SM., et al.. "Ongoing COVID-19 Pandemics by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and the Host Protective Immunity Response: A Simple Outline". EC Emergency Medicine and Critical Care 4.6 (2020):103-108.
  7. Bosch BJ., et al. “Membrane ectopeptidases targeted by human coronaviruses”. Current Opinion in Virology 6 (2014): 55-60.
  8. Huang C., et al. “Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China”. Lancet10223 (2020): 497-506.
  9. Lu R., et al. “Genomic characterisation and epidemiology of 2019 novel coronavirus: implications for virus origins and receptor binding”. Lancet10224 (2020): 565-574.
  10. Lai CC., et al. “Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19): The epidemic and the challenges”. The International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents3 (2020): 105924.
  11. Rabaan AA., et al. “SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, and MERS-COV: A comparative overview”. Le Infezioni in Medicina 2 (2020): 174-184.
  12. Ge XY., et al. “Isolation and characterization of a bat SARS-like coronavirus that uses the ACE2 receptor”. Nature7477 (2013): 535-538.
  13. Gu J and Korteweg C. “Pathology and pathogenesis of severe acute respiratory syndrome”. The American Journal of Pathology 4 (2007): 1136-1147.
  14. Abduljalil JM and Abduljalil BM. “Epidemiology, genome, and clinical features of the pandemic SARS-CoV-2: a recent view”. New Microbes and New Infections 35 (2020): 100672.
  15. Chu H., et al. “Comparative tropism, replication kinetics, and cell damage profiling of SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV with implications for clinical manifestations, transmissibility, and laboratory studies of COVID-19: an observational study”. The Lancet Microbe1 (2020): e14-e23.
  16. Wang N., et al. “Structure of MERS-CoV spike receptor-binding domain complexed with human receptor DPP4”. Cell Research 23 (2013): 986-993.
  17. Lambeir AM., et al. “Dipeptidyl-peptidase IV from bench to bedside: an update on structural properties, functions, and clinical aspects of the enzyme DPP IV”. Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences 40 (2003): 209-294.
Citation: Rashed Noor., et al. “Characterization of the Host Receptor Binding by the Severe Acute Respiratory Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), SARS-CoV and the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV)”. EC Microbiology 16.10 (2020): 24-27.

PubMed Indexed Article

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777

EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033

EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992

EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505

EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793

EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211

EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047

EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560

EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318

EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819

EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840

EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476

EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658

EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489

EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278

EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108

EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571

EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333

EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883

EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001

EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937

EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723

EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726

EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646

EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226

EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268

News and Events

March Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the March issue of respective journals and can be viewed in the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for April Issue

Ecronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the April issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before March 18, 2021.

Certificate of Publication

Ecronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

Ecronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.

Immediate Assistance

The prime motto of this team is to clarify all the queries without any delay or hesitation to avoid the inconvenience. For immediate assistance on your queries please don't hesitate to drop an email to