Research Article
Volume 16 Issue 07 - 2020
Ethyl Acetoacetate and β-Phenylethylamine Inhibit Spoilage Bacteria in Ground Beef
Shelley M Horne, Enas Khadem and Birgit M Prüβ*
Department of Microbiological Sciences, North Dakota State University, Fargo, North Dakota, USA
*Corresponding Author: Birgit M Prüβ, Department of Microbiological Sciences, North Dakota State University, Fargo, North Dakota, USA.
Received: May 06, 2020; Published: June 03, 2020




Abstract

Ethyl acetoacetate (EAA) and β-phenylethylamine (PEA) were previously identified as inhibitors of bacterial growth and reducer of biofilm amounts for numerous bacterial pathogens. With this study, the effect of EAA and PEA on spoilage bacteria was determined in ground beef that was treated with either EAA or PEA and incubated at an abusive temperature of 10°C for up to five days. At a concentration of 0.5% w/w, EAA caused a 2.5 log reduction in total bacterial counts after three days of incubation at 10°C and similar reductions for a selection of specific spoilage organisms, including Lactobacilli and Pseudomonads. For Brochothrix thermosphacta and Enterobacteriaceae, reductions of approximately 1 log were observed after three days. PEA reduced total bacterial counts by 1.4 log. To ensure that the removal of the natural background flora of the meat would not increase the number of pathogens, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium were externally added to the ground beef. EAA reduced Escherichia coli O157:H7 by 1.06 log, whereas bacterial counts of Salmonella enterica were unaffected. PEA did not increase the bacterial counts of externally added E. coli or S. enterica. In conclusion, EAA and PEA were effective at inhibiting spoilage bacteria (e.g. B. thermosphacta) on ground beef and did not increase the numbers of the two tested bacterial pathogens, E. coli and S. enterica.

Keywords: Meat Spoilage Microorganisms; Meat Safety; Beef Meat Anti-Microbials

References

  1. Berry MD. "Mammalian Central Nervous System Trace Amines. Pharmacologic Amphetamines, Physiologic Neuromodulators”. Journal of Neurochemistry 90.2 (2004): 257-271. 
  2. Brashears MM and BD Chaves. "The Diversity of Beef Safety: A Global Reason to Strengthen Our Current Systems”. Meat Science 132 (2017): 59-71. 
  3. Brown LG., et al. "Food Safety Practices Linked with Proper Refrigerator Temperatures in Retail Delis”. Foodborne Pathogens and Disease 15.5 (2018): 300-307. 
  4. Carpenter CE., et al. "Efficacy of Washing Meat Surfaces with 2% Levulinic, Acetic, or Lactic Acid for Pathogen Decontamination and Residual Growth Inhibition”. Meat Science 88.2 (2011): 256-260. 
  5. Cook WM., et al. "A 28-Day Feeding Study with Ethyl Acetoacetate in Rats”. Food and Chemical Toxicology 30.7 (1992): 567-573. 
  6. Gill CO. "Substrate Limitation of Bacterial Growth at Meat Surfaces”. Journal of Applied Bacteriology 41.3 (1976): 401-410. 
  7. Horne SM., et al. "Acetoacetate and Ethyl Acetoacetate as Novel Inhibitors of Bacterial Biofilm”. Letters of Applied Microbiology 66.4 (2018): 329-339. 
  8. Jackson LS. "Chemical Food Safety Issues in the United States: Past, Present, and Future”. Journal Agricultural and Food Chemistry 57.18 (2009): 8161-8170. 
  9. Kim HK., et al. "Chapter One- Current Interventions for Controlling Pathogenic Escherichia Coli”. Advances in Applied Microbiology 100 (2017): 1-47. 
  10. Koutsoumanis K., et al. "Development of a Microbial Model for the Combined Effect of Temperature and Ph on Spoilage of Ground Meat, and Validation of the Model under Dynamic Temperature Conditions”. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 72.1 (2006): 124-134. 
  11. Li Q and CM Logue. "The Growth and Survival of Escherichia Coli O157:H7 on Minced Bison and Pieces of Bison Meat Stored at 5 and 10oc”. Food Microbiology 22 (2005): 415-421. 
  12. Lynnes T., et al. "Β-Phenylethylamine as a Novel Nutrient Treatment to Reduce Bacterial Contamination Due to Escherichia Coli O157:H7 on Beef Meat”. Meat Science 96.1 (2014): 165-171. 
  13. Marques LR., et al. "Production of Shiga-Like Toxin by Escherichia Coli”. Journal of Infectious Disease 154.2 (1986): 338-341. 
  14. Nychas GJ., et al. "Glucose, the Key Substrate in the Microbiological Changes Occurring in Meat and Certain Meat Products”. Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry 10.3 (1988): 203-231. 
  15. Omer MK., et al. "A Systematic Review of Bacterial Foodborne Outbreaks Related to Red Meat and Meat Products”. Foodborne Pathogens and Disease 15.10 (2018): 598-611. 
  16. Parks AR., et al. "Spoilage Characteristics of Ground Beef with Added Lactic Acid Bacteria and Rosemary Oleoresin Packaged in a Modified-Atmosphere Package and Displayed at Abusive Temperatures”. Journal of Animal Sciences 90.6 (2012): 2054-2060. 
  17. Parks AR., et al. "Spoilage Characteristics of Traditionally Packaged Ground Beef with Added Lactic Acid Bacteria Displayed at Abusive Temperatures”. Journal Animal Sciences 90 (2012): 642-648. 
  18. Radhakrishnan K., et al. "Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Effects of Spice Extracts on the Shelf Life Extension of Raw Chicken Meat”. International Journal of Food Microbiology 171 (2014): 32-40. 
  19. Reid R., et al. "The Microbiology of Beef Carcasses and Primals During Chilling and Commercial Storage”. Food Microbiology 61 (2017): 50-57. 
  20. Remenant B., et al. "Bacterial Spoilers of Food: Behavior, Fitness and Functional Properties”. Food Microbiology 45 (2015): 45-53. 
  21. Roccato A., et al. "Analysis of Domestic Refrigerator Temperatures and Home Storage Time Distributions for Shelf-Life Studies and Food Safety Risk Assessment”. Food Research International 96 (2017): 171-181. 
  22. Rogers HB., et al. "The Impact of Packaging System and Temperature Abuse on the Shelf Life Characteristics of Ground Beef”. Meat Science 97.1 (2014): 1-10. 
  23. Schroeder M., et al. "Efficacy of Beta-Phenylethylamine as a Novel Anti-Microbial and Application as a Liquid Catheter Flush”. Journal of Medical Microbiology (2018). 
  24. Shannon HE., et al. "Physiologic Effects and Plasma Kinetics of Beta-Phenylethylamine and Its N-Methyl Homolog in the Dog”. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapy 223.1 (1982): 190-196. 
  25. Stanbridge LH and Davis AR. "The Microbiology of Chill-Stored Meat”. The Microbiology of Meat and Poultry. Edition. Board, R.G.; Davies, A.R. London, United Kingdom: Blackie Academic and Professional, (1998).
  26. Sule P., et al. "Regulation of Cell Division, Biofilm Formation, and Virulence by Flhc in Escherichia Coli O157:H7 Grown on Meat”. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 77.11 (2011): 3653-3662. 
  27. Taormina PJ and LR Beuchat. "Comparison of Chemical Treatments to Eliminate Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia Coli O157:H7 on Alfalfa Seeds”. Journal of Food Protection 62.4 (1999): 318-324. 
  28. Vangay P., et al. "Food Microbe Tracker: A Web-Based Tool for Storage and Comparison of Food-Associated Microbes”. Journal of Food Protection 76.2 (2013): 283-294. 
  29. Vold L., et al. "High Levels of Background Flora Inhibits Growth of Escherichia Coli O157:H7 in Ground Beef ”. International Journal of Food Microbiology 56.2-3 (2000): 219-225. 
  30. Yang HY and NH Neff. "Beta-Phenylethylamine: A Specific Substrate for Type B Monoamine Oxidase of Brain”. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapy 187.2 (1973): 365-371. 
  31. Yoder SF., et al. "Investigation of Chemical Rinses Suitable for Very Small Meat Plants to Reduce Pathogens on Beef Surfaces”. Journal of Food Protection 75.1 (2012): 14-21.
Citation: Birgit M Prüβ., et al. “Ethyl Acetoacetate and β-Phenylethylamine Inhibit Spoilage Bacteria in Ground Beef”. EC Microbiology 16.7 (2020): 06-18.

PubMed Indexed Article


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777


EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033


EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992


EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505


EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793


EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211


EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047


EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560


EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318


EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819


EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840


EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476


EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658


EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489


EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278


EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108


EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571


EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333


EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883


EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001


EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937


EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723


EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726


EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646


EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226


EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268


News and Events


March Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the March issue of respective journals and can be viewed in the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for April Issue

Ecronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the April issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before March 22, 2021.

Certificate of Publication

Ecronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

Ecronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.

Immediate Assistance

The prime motto of this team is to clarify all the queries without any delay or hesitation to avoid the inconvenience. For immediate assistance on your queries please don't hesitate to drop an email to editor@ecronicon.uk