Review Article
Volume 16 Issue 5 - 2020
Does Vaccination/Immunization in the Military Equals a Loss of Basic Medical Rights to Informed Consent? Perception of a Retired U.S. Combat Army Medic Veteran
George Edafese U Alakpa*
SSG US Army Retired, Director, Hamburg Borough Board of Health, NJ, USA
*Corresponding Author: George Edafese U Alakpa, SSG US Army Retired, Director, Hamburg Borough Board of Health, NJ, USA.
Received: March 09, 2020; Published: April 28, 2020


The U.S. soldier is a one of the very few (less than 1%) of the U.S. population, that has volunteered to lay down his/or her life for the preservation of the Republic, and while the military is said to play a vital role in the US national security policy. Many veterans have complained about their rights to Informed Consent as regards mandatory vaccination, especially when medical conditions or disease may have arisen from the vaccines, are rejected by both the military and Veterans Affairs as service connected. This article is thus to raise these questions and instigate productive debate as to the plights of these very few that volunteered to service the US military in combat.

Keywords: Vaccination; Immunization; Informed Consent; Rights; Military


  1. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (USDoHHS). Civil Rights (2019). 
  2. Jordan AA., et al. “American National Security”. 6th edition. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA (2009): 663.
  3. The American Health Lawyers Association (AHLA). Informed Consent in Military Medical Research: A Guide for Military Service Members. AHLA Public Interest (2014): 8. 
  4. The American Health Lawyers Association. Understanding Informed Consent: A Guide for Active Duty Military and Military Medical Beneficiaries. AHLA Public Interest (2013): 8. 
  5. Defense Health Agency (DHA) 2018. Procedural Instruction Number 6025.10 (2018). 
  6. The American Health Lawyers Association. A Patient’s Rights and Responsibilities: A Guide for Active-Duty Military and Military Medical Beneficiaries. AHLA Public Interest (2016): 6. 
  7. Crosby C. “Did the Anthrax Vaccine Make Troops Ill?” Veterans (2018). 
  8. Rempfer K. “Soldier’s lawsuit dismissed after claim she was forced to take anthrax vaccinations that made her sick”. ArmyTimes (2019). 
  9. Murphy D., et al. “Anthrax vaccination in the military population before the war in Iraq: Side effects and informed choice”. Vaccine 25.44 (2007): 7641-7648. 
  10. Krause B. “Anthrax Vaccine: Five Things You Need To Know About The Leaked Army Memo”. Disabled Veteran (2018). 
  11. Think Twice. “Experimental Vaccines and Gulf War Syndrome” (2019). 
  12. Andrews L. “Coronavirus could kill 45 MILLION people and infect SIXTY PER CENT of the global population if it cannot be controlled, top Hong Kong medical official warns”. Mailonline, Daily Mail (2020). 
  13. Rahhal N. “China built a lab to study SARS and Ebola in Wuhan-and US biosafety experts warned in 2007 that a virus could “escape” the facility that’s become key in fighting the outbreak”. Daily Mail, Online (2020). 
  14. Corso PJ. “The Day After Roswell”. Gallery Books, New York, USA (2017): 371.
  15. Hall R. “Is the CIA Stonewalling?” 1982: 27-28. 
  16. Lawrence K. “Do Records Show Proof of UFOs? Are We Alone”. National Archives News (2020). 
  17. The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). FBI Records: The Vault (2020). 
  18. Smithsonian Channel. UFO declassified (2020). 
  19. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) UFOs: Facts or Fictions? (2020). 
  20. National Security Agency|Central Security Service (NSA|CSS). UFO Documents Index (2020). 
  21. History: Navy Confirms UFO Videos Are Real and Show Unidentified Aerial Phenomena | HISTORY (2020). 
  22. Blair A. “Claims Coronavirus 'started in secret lab' for world's deadliest diseases dismissed”. Daily Star (2020). 
  23. Fisher BL and Càceres M. “Judges Denies Injunction of NY Law Repealing Religious Vaccine Exemption”. New York Law (2019). 
  24. Shilhavy B. “Washington State Battleground: Citizens Head to Capitol to Oppose Mandatory Vaccines”. InHeadline (2019). 
  25. Kennedy AM., et al. “Vaccine Briefs of Parents Who Oppose Compulsory Vaccination”. Public Health Reports 120.3 (2005): 252-258. 
  26. Jeffery RH. “Vaccination and Law”. Australian Family Physician 44.11 (2015): 849-852.
  27. The History of Vaccine. Cultural Perspectives on vaccination (2020). 
  28. Horowitz LG. “Emerging Viruses AIDS & Ebola Nature, Accident or Intentional?” Tetrahedron Publishing Group, USA (1999): 594.
  29. The History of Vaccines. U.S. Military and Vaccine History (2019). 
  30. Sulsky SI., et al. “Disability among US Army Veterans vaccinated against anthrax”. Vaccine 30.43 (2012): 6150-6156. 
Citation: George Edafese U Alakpa. “Does Vaccination/Immunization in the Military Equals a Loss of Basic Medical Rights to Informed Consent? Perception of a Retired U.S. Combat Army Medic Veteran". EC Microbiology 16.5 (2020): 57-64.

PubMed Indexed Article

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777

EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033

EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992

EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505

EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793

EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211

EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047

EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560

EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318

EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819

EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840

EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476

EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658

EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489

EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278

EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108

EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571

EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333

EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883

EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001

EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937

EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723

EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726

EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646

EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226

EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268

News and Events

March Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the March issue of respective journals and can be viewed in the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for April Issue

Ecronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the April issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before March 18, 2021.

Certificate of Publication

Ecronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

Ecronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.

Immediate Assistance

The prime motto of this team is to clarify all the queries without any delay or hesitation to avoid the inconvenience. For immediate assistance on your queries please don't hesitate to drop an email to