Review Article
Volume 15 Issue 7 - 2019
Role of Diet and Exercise Management of Peripheral Artery Disease: Review of Literatures

Manal Abdulaziz Murad1*, Fahad Saleh Alsefry2, Feras Loay Alkindi3, Saud Saad Mannaa Alamri4, Abdulrahman Saud Abdulrahman Alasmari4, Salman Hudayhid Alqurashi5, Hassan Muwafak Habis6, Ali Ibrahim Ali Albayh6, Abdulaziz Saud Abdulrahman Alasmari7, Ibrahim Ahmed Ibrahim Asseri4, Saleh Omar Bajahlan8 and Fawaz Abdulkreem Alzhrani9

1Assistant Professor and Consultant Family Medicine, Family Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia
2Al Laith General Hospital, Saudi Arabia
3King Fahad General Hospital Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
4King Khalid University, Saudi Arabia
5King Faisal Specialist Hospital Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
6King Abdulaziz Hospital Makkah, Saudi Arabia
7Armed Forces Hospital- Najran, Saudi Arabia
8Alshara’e 7 Primary Health Care Center, Saudi Arabia
9Health Sciences College at Al-leth, Saudi Arabia
*Corresponding Author: Manal Abdulaziz Murad, Assistant Professor and Consultant Family Medicine, Family Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia.
Received: May 18, 2019; Published: June 21, 2019




Abstract

Introduction: Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is an important life-threatening or limb-threatening disease that affects about six percent of the United States general population aged about forty years, roughly sixteen million and a half American individuals. Prevention and management of Peripheral arterial disease has focused on the alteration of cardiovascular predisposing factors, that include tobacco smoking, elevated blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, and increase lipids levels. Life-style improvements include protocols for smoking cessation, physical exercise programs, and changes in the diet. Pharmacological interventions include the management of this chronic condition with cholesterol-lowering drugs (like statins), anti-platelet drugs, and anti-hypertensive drugs, like angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and alpha-blocker agents. although these guidelines are available, Peripheral arterial disease patients are usually under-treated with regard to decreased predisposing factors when compared to patients with other heart diseases

Aim of Work: In this review, we will discuss Role of diet and exercise management of peripheral artery disease.

Methodology: We did a systematic search for Role of diet and exercise management of peripheral artery disease using PubMed search engine (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/) and Google Scholar search engine (https://scholar.google.com). All relevant studies were retrieved and discussed. We only included full articles.

Conclusions: In our review we give solid evidence to the role of nutrition and physical exercise in the prevalence of peripheral artery disease. We conclude that in specific populations, anti-oxidants (like vitamin A, Vitamin C, and Vitamin E), B vitamins (including folate and B6), and fibers intake were found to be linked to a protective effect going beyond that explained by traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Additionally, a diet that is low in saturated fats and high in omega-3 fatty acids might also confer a beneficial effect against peripheral artery disease. Among more than sixteen million Americans who suffer from peripheral artery disease, our study demonstrated that extremely poor dietary habits, with average levels of nutritional intake far below what the FDA suggested dietary guidelines. This needs considerable dietary improvement on a nationwide scale.

Keywords: Diet; Exercise; Lifestyle; Peripheral Artery Disease; Management

References

  1. Hankey GJ., et al. “Medical treatment of peripheral arterial disease”. Journal of the American Medical Association 295.5 (2006): 547-553.
  2. McDermott MM., et al. “Atherosclerotic risk factors are less intensively treated in patients with peripheral arterial disease than in patients with coronary artery disease”. Journal of General Internal Medicine 12.4 (1997): 209-215.
  3. Ross R. “Atherosclerosis–an inflammatory disease”. New England Journal of Medicine 340.2 (1999): 115-126.
  4. Carrero JJ and Grimble RF. “Does nutrition have a role in peripheral vascular disease?” British Journal of Nutrition 95.2 (2006): 217-229.
  5. Mead A., et al. “Dietetic guidelines on food and nutrition in the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease - evidence from systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials (second update, January 2006)”. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics 19.6 (2006): 401-419.
  6. Spark JI., et al. “Patients with chronic critical limb ischaemia have reduced total antioxidant capacity and impaired nutritional status”. European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery 24.6 (2002): 535-539.
  7. Donnan PT., et al. “Diet as a risk factor for peripheral arterial disease in the general population: the Edinburgh Artery Study”. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 57.6 (1993): 917-921.
  8. Langlois M., et al. “Serum vitamin C concentration is low in peripheral arterial disease and is associated with inflammation and severity of atherosclerosis”. Circulation 103.14 (2001): 1863-1868.
  9. Podmore ID., et al. “Vitamin C exhibits pro-oxidant properties”. Nature 392.6676 (1998): 559.
  10. Lonn E., et al. “Effects of long-term vitamin E supplementation on cardiovascular events and cancer: a randomized controlled trial”. Journal of the American Medical Association 293.11 (2005): 1338-1347.
  11. Ciccarone E., et al. “Homocysteine levels are associated with the severity of peripheral arterial disease in type 2 diabetic patients”. Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis 1.12 (2003): 2540-2547.
  12. van den Berg M., et al. “Combined vitamin B6 plus folic acid therapy in young patients with arteriosclerosis and hyperhomocysteinemia”. Journal of Vascular Surgery 20.6 (1994): 933-940.
  13. Wilmink AB., et al. “Dietary folate and vitamin B6 are independent predictors of peripheral arterial occlusive disease”. Journal of Vascular Surgery 39.3 (2004): 513-516.
  14. Bønaa KH., et al. “Homocysteine lowering and cardiovascular events after acute myocardial infarction”. New England Journal of Medicine 354.15 (2006): 1578-1588.
  15. Powell KE., et al. “Physical activity and the incidence of coronary heart disease”. Annual Review of Public Health 8 (1987): 253-287.
  16. Lteif A., et al. “Endothelin limits insulin action in obese/insulin resistant humans”. Diabetes 56.3 (2007): 728-734.
  17. Peake J and Suzuki K. “Neutrophil activation, antioxidant supplements and exercise-induced oxidative stress”. Exercise Immunology Review 10 (2004): 129-141.
  18. Fantuzzi G and Mazzone T. “Adipose tissue and atherosclerosis: Exploring the connection”. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology 27.5 (2007): 996-1003.
  19. Phillips SA., et al. “Resistance and aerobic exercise protects against acute endothelial impairment induced by a single exposure to hypertension during exertion”. Journal of Applied Physiology 110.4 (2011): 1013-1020.
Citation: Manal Abdulaziz Murad., et al. “Role of Diet and Exercise Management of Peripheral Artery Disease: Review of Literatures”. EC Microbiology 15.7 (2019): 630-636.

PubMed Indexed Article


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777


EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033


EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992


EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505


EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793


EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211


EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047


EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560


EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318


EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819


EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840


EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476


EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658


EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489


EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278


EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108


EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571


EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333


EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883


EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001


EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937


EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723


EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726


EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646


EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226


EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268


News and Events


February Issue Release

We Always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released February issue for the respective journals and can be viewed in the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for April Issue

E-Cronicon delightfully welcome all the authors around the globe for an effective collaboration with an article submission for the March issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before March 03, 2020.

Certificate of Publication

E-Cronicon honours with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

E-Cronicon certify the Editors for their first review done towards assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

Latest articles will be updated immediately in the articles in press page of the respective journals.

Immediate Assistance

Prime moto of this team is to clarify all the queries without any delay or hesitation in order to avoid the inconvenience. For an immediate assistance on your queries please don't hesitate to drop an email to editor@ecronicon.uk