Research Article
Volume 2 Issue 2 - 2015
Menopause Sex Characteristics
Jianzhong Zha Song Lin Li*
Department of Gynaecology, Ke Li Female Sexual Health Institute, Wuhan, China
*Corresponding Author: Jianzhong Zha Song Lin Li, Department of Gynaecology, Ke Li Female Sexual Health Institute, Wuhan, China.
Received: November 09, 2015; Published: November 24, 2015
Citation: Jianzhong Zha Song Lin Li. “Menopause Sex Characteristics”. EC Gynaecology 2.2 (2015): 177-184.
Objective: The main objective of this article is to investigate- “How menopause affects the sex?” For menopausal sex, different responses will love that in the coming 10 years what kind of impact do it will have a successful menopause?
Methods: Women’s sex life can be divided into the reproductive period, menopause, non-reproductive period in three different stages and will be able to change the reproductive characteristics of sex and menopause compare deduction.
Results: The animal shows a significant reproductive advantage than a human reflex ovulation cycle. As a compensatory mechanism, independent human ovarian secretion of sex-related androgen (T) and estrogen (E2) has been matched and positively correlated with the T libido into ovulation. T corresponds exactly to peak that exhibited a “Reproductive prompt” function. It is difficult to make up sperm and egg combination that is disadvantageous. Meanwhile, E2 ebb and flow has been observed. Sex provided sufficient lubrication. The “want to have sex is all to do”, has become a fundamental characteristic for reproductive sex.
Before menopause, with 30 years experience of compensatory run, “want to be able to do,” the cognitive, laid full “sexual self-confidence.” Especially due to menopause early follicle stimulating hormone FSH was increased that showed a more enhanced short period of excessive lubrication with “want to be able to do” awareness. Due to the withdrawal of compensatory mechanisms that are not asymptotic, once the follicles stop growing, the cliff secretion stops, causing vaginal dryness. This cause severe discomfort between sexual partners, and can easily cause pain during intercourse that leads to “Sexual confidence” crisis.
The characteristics of Menopause sex are: The main way will be self-lubricating secretion to reflex secretion conversion. Many people, by mistake believe that the function of aging is a reason to give up sex.
Conclusion: Menopause education should be strengthened and therapeutic intervention to prevent the disappearance of menopause with reproductive function leads to disappearance of sexual function also.
Keywords: Reproductive sex; Menopause Sex Compensatory; Mechanisms Reflex secretion
Menopause sex problem is a problem that many women will experience. Typically, the academic practice of using “Obstetrics and Gynecology” is to look and think about female sexual problems. It is to use “medical illness” or “reproductive medicine” to treat associated problems after understanding. In fact, the perception is often possible to mislead us as: menopause common sexual dysfunction (FSD) views; menopause “aging” of the view; In fact be a change, standing within sexuality and reproductive species competition dimension with independent thinking. What menopause because of what affects the sex? In menopausal sex, what kind of impact is seen on the future that picked up a few years of life due to different responses? What to do will have a perfect menopause. “50% of women after menopause, usually have sex changes, including slow vaginal lubrication, reduction of the secretion of vulvar discomfort (burning sensation) and pain during intercourse, dyspareunia” (Sherwin, 1993; Bachmann, 1995; Levine, 1998 ) [1]. For these related issues, “Although there have been many researchers, still there is an urgent need to promote a more holistic about women and their comprehensive study” (BRKomisaruk, C. Beyer-Flores, B. Whipple, 2006) [2].
Related Thinking
Masters-Johnson (1966) in the reaction cycle research reveals a lot of information about human sexuality, “Leakage is a process to produce vaginal secretions, and when a woman lifts libido, blood flow increase in volume and the generated pressure causes water seeping from the intercellular gap “(Jerrold S. Greenberg, Clint E. Bruess, Sarah C. Conklin, 2007)” [3]. In female sexual arousal period, mainly for genital congestion, vaginal lubrication is one of the primary characteristics. Sexual stimulation is generally 10 to 30 seconds with the liquid oozing from the walls of the vagina leading to wet vagina (Le Jie, 2008) [4]. These are undoubtedly the most important to explore human sexuality, the landmark discovery. However, even when women began to hold such feelings from after the menopause 30 years, there have been exceptions. Sex change 50% of women after menopause, including slow vaginal lubrication, reduction of the secretion of ..., which shows that in response to the reproductive state, and in response menopausal state, as well as in non-reproductive state. In post menopausal stage, the existence of significant differences will be seen. In order to facilitate research, the following status will be different periods respectively referred to as “Available reproductive sex”, “Menopause sex”, and “Non-reproductive sex”. The study of menopausal sex problem, in essence, is to consider the differences of sex and menopause for reproductive sex. By these comparisons, deduction we can find out the reason.
“Sexual instinct belongs to reproductive instinct that is the most basic of life. The most important one of the core viability” (Zhu Qi, 2006), [5] the sexual instinct was confirmed in practice, often “I think you can”. However, during a “want” but “cannot” sex difficult situation in menopause sex, visible sexual instinct should include “wanted” and “energy”. Sexual instincts supported by what? There are the material bases of the sexual instinct. What in the decision “I want” and “can” mean?
In fact, there has been a lot of history associated with thinking, to explore: necessary sex factors (cats, rabbits ...) where estradiol non-primate females appear, while in case of other species (rats and mice) it must be pregnant ketone joint action. However, in humans, estrogen appears to female sexual response including orgasm with no significant effect surprisingly (BR Komisaruk, C. Beyer-Flores, B. Whipple, 2006) [6]. The most determined one conclusion: Women at any stage of the menstrual cycle can be sex, that is, under different hormonal conditions, such as whether the level of estradiol, progesterone deficiency exists or not, it can be carried out (BR Komisaruk, C. Beyer-Flores, B. Whipple, 2006) [7]. Many studies have been conducted on women taking estrogen or other estrogen in different situations, including bilateral oophorectomy female gonads in both normal libido sexy women or missing women. All studies have consistently found various aspects of estrogen therapy on response (including sex drive, sexual desire, the occurrence and treatment of orgasm) with no reliable effect (Shevwin, Gelfand & Bvender, 1985; tian, 1975) [8]. Large doses of estrogen do not improve female sexual desire, arousal or orgasm (Salmon & Geist, 1943; Furuhjelm, Karlgren & Carlstrom, 1984; Nathorsr-Boos, von Schoultz & Carstrom, 1993) [9]. Estrogen alone had no effect on sexual response (BRKomisaruk, C. Beyer-Flores, B. Whipple, 2006) [10]. Hormone of sexual activities did not play a decisive role, namely whether hormone levels occurred how much volatility, even if it is not, one can also undergo reactions (BRKomisaruk, C. Beyer-Flores, B. Whipple, 2006) [11]. Sex hormones in humans do not act as a necessary role, and just as regulating role. What is the difference between them? In the kitchen, for example, the eggs serve as a necessary role in the omelet, but in potato salad act as a conciliatory role “(BRKomisaruk, C. Beyer-Flores, B. Whipple, 2006) [12]. Despite some views like this, it does not affect us to explore different dimensions that may lead to reproductive sex characteristics.
About Sex and reproductive period
Generally let us consider the relationship between sex and reproduction. Mostly reproductive outcomes and studies related to the relationship between reproduction and sex is to consider the impact of the reproductive state on functioning of reproductive system that arise sexuality.
Reproductive dimension sex
And other living things on Earth that are able to survive in the world are only those species that have strong and sound reproduction genes. 3.5 billion years ago, the human organism is based on two different sexes, as well as two perfectly fit the genital form of existence, which determines the basic form of human reproduction. That is, the organism of human life, through the fusion of matter and energy with the external environment (i.e., sperm-egg binding), to achieve reproduction.
Reproduction (desire) to produce sex
How to achieve integration? How steady is the stream of proliferation? Reproductive desire to obtain a cure in human evolution and became the most important genes.
Reproduction (desire) to produce sex
Reproductive performance of Desire “Insert and shoot Xieyu” in men and in women can be divided into contact desire and desire fullness release, that are the performance requirements of vaginal touch and to hold the desire (Le Jie, 2008) [13]. The acts to meet these desires are commonly referred to sexual acts, or simply sex. “The essence of sex is the biological significance of the penis into the vagina is considered to be an essential biological sex and human sexual intercourse is the most “natural” and also one of the most “essential” (BRKomisaruk, C. Beyer -Flores, B. Whipple, 2006) [14]. It shows that a particular sexual orientation forms the basis for human reproduction. In other words, human reproduction will reflect the desire by the sexual realization. Sex has become a human instinct, sexual instinct.
Sex messenger function
With human evolution, the development of social civilization sex has two attributes that are biological and humanities. For Reproduction, (biological properties), the sex of the messenger function is the outer environment of matter and energy that “reaches” to suit the site (in the vagina, near the cervix); and if the humanities property is concerned, sex is the messenger function. It can be emotional (including love, hate, love, hatred) to the human heart.
Generally considered “functional behavior is offspring”, (Le Jie, 2008) [15], but, in fact, it can occur in addition to sexual reproductive outcomes messenger “service” role. It also depends on “delivery” opportunity, and two organisms produce quality reproductive material including the breeding environment and so on. Therefore, in reproductive sex, sex is just a part of reproduction, a step that is part of reproduction.
Androgen (T)
Theophile de Bordean in the 18th century put forwarded the “hormone” concept. In the mid-19th century, domestic DS secretion experts AA Berthold created a view”, that androgens (testosterone) is a necessary basis for men and women having sex. “For over a century, after a lot of observation and experimental study, people with androgen (T) of a relevant role, already have a good knowledge of KB Davis (1929) study. “KB Davis (1929) in his seminal study explained the analysis of the 2200 women’s sexual demands strength,” and also found that they have two peaks, one is before menstruation and the other is after menstruation. “(Greenblatt, 1943) has also given the same conclusion:” Some women before menstruation becomes a ‘flirt’ “(BRKomisaruk, C. Beyer-Flores, B. Whipple, 2006) [17]. Women in sexual desire and sexual pleasure includes performance on the orgasm with a proof of androgen that effects on female sexual response around ovulation stage than other more common stages (Udry and Morris, 1968: Adams, Gold and Burt, 1978; Bancroft., et al. 1983) [18]. All along, people from a large number of studies from different angles confirms that androgen affects both male and female sex drive, excessive androgens cause libido transition, otherwise lead to decreased sexual interest (Jerrold S. Greenberg, Clint E. Bruess, Sarah C. Conklin, 2007) [19]. These studies further showed that the androgen (T) directly affect the strength of sexual desire, sexual hasten size of the force, and of Ben capable of “thinking” is closely correlated.
A necessary condition for sex
Sexual behavior in order to meet a specific set of desires happen, and in this group the pursuit of “clenched feeling” dynamic fit (thrusts), no lubrication mucosa has a very high coefficient of friction and is almost dry and even inserts all impossible. Obviously, lubrication is a necessary condition for this group activity. Since E2 vaginal lubrication in the production plays an important role, then, it can be considered a necessary condition for E2 sex.
Understanding compensatory mechanisms
Human egg is released from the ovary and there is no exact synchronization relationship between sexual activity. However, in animals, female Animal mating is only when vaginal irritation occurs, only to release the egg. This process is termed ‘reflex ovulation’, in contrast, the process of ovulation is having ‘spontaneous ovulation’ properties “(BRKomisaruk, C.Beyer-Flores, B.Whipple, 2006) [25]. Women proactive behavior (sexual desire) is mainly limited to around ovulation, a peak testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2) levels occur during this period “(BRKomisaruk, C. Beyer-Flores, B. Whipple, 2006) [26]. “From an evolutionary point of view, the menstrual cycle is a mammalian reproductive life history addendum on the latest increase” (BRKomisaruk, C. Beyer-Flores, B. Whipple, 2006) [27].
However, from sexuality (necessary and sufficient conditions for considering sex) and competitive dimension of reproductive species that can be found: an animal’s than a human reflex ovulation cycle has obvious reproductive advantage. Independent human ovarian cycle of secretion of sex hormones (T) and (E2) is matched by a (T) positively correlated with sexual desire that corresponds exactly to peak at ovulation peak created by the animal in nature of “help” initiative sex that leads to favorable sperm encounter so as to have a “reproductive prompt” function. In particular (E2) dynamics for sexual activity during this period, including the provision of lubrication (to enter), keratinocytes (tolerance campaign ejaculation) support Obviously, from the reproductive tips to lubricate keratosis, this series of subtle attention is enough to show that this is a mechanism of a compensatory mechanism, reproductive compensation. Visibility, due to sexual reproduction is a part of, because the reproductive mechanism is of compensatory role in reproductive state where in reproductive system (including the matching operation of compensatory mechanisms) does reproductive sex can have a positive, positive impact.
Can the reproductive characteristics of sex
(Compensatory mechanisms in blood pg / ml) 50 < E2 < 500; 0.4 < T < 0.6; (Le Jie, 2000) [28] Usually in 10 to 30 seconds of stimulation, the liquid oozing from the walls of the vagina, vagina gets wet (Le Jie, 2008) [29]. Women in any stage of the menstrual cycle can be sex, regardless of the level of E2 to be carried out (BRKomisaruk, C. Beyer-Flores, B. Whipple, 2006) [30]. E2 of growth and decline and spontaneous sex provides for rapid, adequate lubrication, “want to be able to do”, or even “do not want to have to do”, (that is, at the peak or valley can E2 of sex) that is reproductive sex characteristics.
About Menopause Sex
Menopause means the gradual change period, especially for a long time, “women ovarian function gradually subsided to a complete disappearance of the transitional period” (Zheng Huai America, 1980), [31]. It will be a procedural, irreversible apoptosis. What are the problems faced in menopausal sex?
Sex confidence
In former female menopause with 30 years experience of compensatory run, “want to be able to do”, “the cognitive”, laid a sufficient “sex self-confidence.” Especially due to increased pre-menopause follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), it can cause excessive secretion of E2 that will have a short period of more enhanced excessive lubrication with “we want to be able to do” awareness. In addition, including long-term couples living together (or sexual partner) will get “want to be able to do”, the same feeling during sex practice.
Effect of sexual confidence of academic
“E2 seems to female sexual response including orgasm with no significant effect and this is strange”. (BRKomisaruk, C. Beyer-Flores, B. Whipple, 2006) and the end of the sex hormones play a decisive role in sexual activity, namely no matter how large fluctuations in hormone levels occurs, even if it is not, one can also undergo reactions. (Nathorsr - Boos, von Schoultz and Carstrom, 1993) [32]. In Sex confidence let us ignore the existence of compensatory mechanisms.
Non-asymptotic compensatory mechanisms withdrawal
The entire menopausal transition E2 is not declining, but in the growth and development of follicles, it stops only when there is rapid decline in postmenopausal Close secretion”. (Le Jie, 2008) [33] Bursts appear, cliff secretion stops, causing vaginal dryness. It also causes both partners seriously ill, and can easily cause pain during intercourse, causing “sex confidence” crisis.
Menopause Changes
It occurs since apoptosis reproductive function, in particular, because it does not compensate reproduction. After the withdrawal of compensatory mechanisms, sexual function may also change from previous “think you can” to the present” may not want to”.
Menopause Sex Characteristics
After the withdrawal: (compensatory blood pg/ml) 10 < E2 < 30; T < 0.35 (Le Jie, 2000) [34]. Menopause is not very clear with endocrine basis, between the normal menstrual cycle and menopause and the ovaries produce hormones with speed variation in everyone. Estrogen, estradiol, estrone production decreased by approximately 85% and 58%. The male hormone produced by the ovaries, androstenedione and testosterone decreased 67% and 29% (Longcope, Jaffee & Griff-ing, 1981; Levine, 1998) [35]. That is, the withdrawal of compensatory mechanisms occurred after E2 only about 15%; and T about the remaining 71%. It is contemplated that in no reproduction, there is no compensatory logic, after the withdrawal of compensatory mechanisms. There were low levels of E2 that are longer sufficient to support the formation of an effective stimulation of secreting cells and secretion that occurs. Thus lose their autonomy, spontaneous, automatic and rapid lubricity sex during menopause. So, the necessary conditions for future behavior, will be presented in the form of? Regular masturbation and sexual intercourse help to reduce vaginal dryness and pain. (Jerrold S. Greenberg, Clint E. Bruess, Sarah C.Conklin, 2007) [36]. Menopause Sex Features: The main way is lubricated by autonomous secretion that is converted to reflection.
Liquid flowing through vaginal wall cells can enter the vaginal cavity. The process is referred to as leakage (BRKomisaruk, C. Beyer-Flores, B. Whipple, 2006) [38]. Nervous female reproductive system (including the pudendal nerve, pelvic nerve, etc.) is densely distributed on its distal labia, vagina and clitoris which are the body’s nerve endings in the clitoris distribution of the most intensive areas. (BRKomisaruk, C. Beyer -Flores, B. Whipple, 2006) [39]. Through masturbation and by stimulating the nerve endings, it leads to release of liquid. It is possible to become the vaginal wall in the flow of liquid source or supplement and it is perhaps the main reason for slow lubrication.
Access pain (FSD) problem
After entering menopause, usually their sexual condition is no more perceptible and is quietly changed radically. However, due to sex confident reason, generally, in menopause sex, people will still be in accordance with long-standing sexual habits, the way to act. Many female vaginal intercourses are often not lubricated, or fully lubricated case entry. Thus, it can easily cause vaginal epithelial mucosa entrance wear damage, or minor laceration pull. Of course, these injuries are usually very subtle, and may be generally Gynecologically also difficult to find. However, due to the epithelial cells by acute injury, cytoskeletal damage, or content flowing out, the surrounding tissue can cause inflammation (or swelling, redness, burning sensation) and is easy to produce inflammatory adhesions or infections, for sexual problems or difficulties.
Access pain (FSD) problem
In particular, these common clinical symptoms are not as academic front. January 4, 2003 as well as the “British Medical Journal” published the “ustralian Financial Review”. Washington correspondent Moynihan wrote that redefines FSD scientists and doctors and also many people closely with pharmaceutical companies. FSD is a manufactured disease. However, after six weeks, “British Medical Journal” received more than 70 letters of disagreement. Many doctors believe sexual problems are caused not only by psychological factors, but there might also be physiological factors”. It is because of such a doctor and reporters, many women will have long disregarded FSD. (Li Hujun, 2004) [40]. The FSD is the argument “artificial disease” until 2013. In “The 21st world Health Assembly” (21st World Congress for Sexual Health), the scholars responded from the perspective of discipline plan and elaborated Disease Medicine and sexual medicine presence in judgment disease. They have also spotted out that the differences between the two were to ‘survive’ and ‘quality of life’ as the standard; Pain is not pleasant to enter does not affect survival, and therefore do not face up medicine for the disease, where there is nowhere a large number of patients seeking treatment for root cause. (Jianzhong, Li Songlin, 2013). From the perspective of therapeutics, it has been stated that While entering pain pathology, physiological factors do exist, such as a strong pain can cause nerve hypersensitivity; neurotransmitter produced by the negative emotions can lead to inhibition of the endocrine system; high tensile vaginal mucosa of the need to fix in the highly sensitive state like; therefore, to strengthen the appropriate clinical studies (Zha Jianzhong, Li Songlin, 2013) [41].
With regard to the problem of aging
For menopausal changes (including sexual issues), if the stand is in the perspective of disease medicine and reproductive medicine, for the relevance, [Pathophysiology] we generally have such a number of views: Changes of menopause actually includes two aspects: First ovarian function recession, the impact of falling estrogen levels produced; on the other hand the organism aging changes the two often intertwined (Zheng Huai America, 1980) [42]. Our aging? For reproductive purposes, it is not only, or even had apoptosis. However, sex is indeed not at all clear. In 5000 to have a college aged students, randomly selected 9 Professional 13 classes Di 316 middle-aged women students, in the form of the questionnaire, in the middle-aged women sex enthusiastic research with respondents aged 41 to 86 years, and every 10-year interval group, the results showed that: For the long-term there is no sex uncomfortable or very uncomfortable and accounted for 23.4%. The proportion of different age groups showed the following relationship: 70 group > 40 group > 50 group > 60 group. There is sex in 47.7% of the population who frequently change sexual position. This is compared with different age groups and it showed the following relationship: 40 group > 50 group 70 group > 60 group. 11.1% of people believe that no sex cannot grow old Of different ages, the proportion of the group was the following relationship: 70 group > 50 group > 40 group > 60 groups.
Middle-aged female sexual passion and age does not have an absolute negative correlation. (Zha Jianzhong, Li Songlin, 2015) [43]. It is visible that after entering menopause, menopause sex with non-reproductive sex may also experience nearly 30 years.
What is the perfect menopause?
Sex is run through a central topic of human life. There is no doubt that due to the withdrawal of menopause sex compensatory mechanism will bring some difficulty or confusion. In particular, menopausal sex change just at the important nodes of a nexus that can end reproduction, menopause sexual encounter difficulties or have completely lost past experience. In middle-aged people, how many more do not keep sex? How to keep it? Indeed, this is the issue we need to face up to. From the physiological point of view, after natural menopause, the male hormones produced mainly by the adrenal cortex and blood androgen levels were positively correlated with sexual interest. (Leiblum., et al. 1983;. McCoy and Davidson,1985). After this, it means that with compensatory withdrawal, the body surviving sexual energy will continue for a long year and this sexual energy needs to be released through sex [44].
In fact, menopause sex with non-reproductive sex occurs more prominent is the humanistic attributes of sex. The sociology of sex “uniqueness”, “exclusive”, “irreplaceable” requirement, sex and emotion are closely linked together and became emotional transfer. This is the most expensive insurance, the most simple and effective way path. It is visible to retain this messenger that is very necessary. Since menopause is a procedural change, it is irreversible. In advocated sex between husband and wife problem, couples jointly cope with, but do not deliberately pursue past automatic, fast lubrication feelings. This leads to excessive use of external hormones associated with an increased risk. But this should gradually adapt to “slow lubrication” to rebuild a new “sex self-confidence”. Clearly, we have reason to believe: Start (adaptation) reflection and secrete lubrication system to maintain (restore) a regular sex life. It is a perfect menopause.
Menopause sex education should be strengthened and should access (intercourse) pain treatment intervention (Zha Jianzhong, Li Songlin, 2011) [45] to prevent the disappearance of menopause with reproductive function and sexual function.
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Copyright: © 2015 Jianzhong Zha Song Lin Li. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476

EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658

EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489

EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278

EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108

EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571

EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333

EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883

EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001

EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937

EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723

EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726

EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646

EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226

EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268

News and Events

August Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the August issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

ECronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before August 18, 2022.

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Latest Articles

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