Research Article
Volume 1 Issue 1 - 2015
Is Obesity a Risk Factor for Menstrual Abnormality in Saudi Females?
Leena Mawaldi1*, A Alsada1 and A E Ahmed2
1Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, King Abdulaziz Medical City-National Guard Hospital, Saudi Arabia
2Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Saudi Arabia
*Corresponding Author: Leena Mawaldi, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, King Abdulaziz Medical City-National Guard Hospital, Riyadh‐KSA, Saudi Arabia.
Received: January 7, 2015; Published: January 12 , 2015
Citation: Leena Mawaldi., et al. “Is Obesity a Risk Factor for Menstrual Abnormality in Saudi Females?” EC Gynaecology 1.1 (2015): 26-34.
Objective: To estimate the risk of obesity as a cause of abnormal menstruation among Saudi females.
Setting: King Abdulaziz Medical City, National Guard hospital, Obstetrics and Gynaecology Department, Gynecologic clinics, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
Design: A retrospective case‐control study.
Population: A cohort of 145 females, 72 with normal menstruation, and73 with abnormal menstruation.
Methods: The data were collected from patients charts: Age, abnormality of menstrual type, weight (kg), BMI (kg/m^2), and waist circumference (wc), blood samples were obtained: fasting Insulin, glucose level, total testosterone, TSH, cholesterol, HDL, and LDL. With inclusion criteria: 1) age between 11 to 35 years, and 2) married, and exclusion criteria: 1) No hormonal treatment, 2) not pregnant, 3) not breast feeding, and 4) not diabetic patient
Results: The results of unadjusted analyses show that abnormal menstruation was more common among obese women (OR = 5.5; 95% CI: 2.156‐14.232), women with medium central obesity (OR = 5.5; 95% CI: 1.998‐15.329), and high central obesity (OR = 9.4; 95% CI: 3.548‐24.695) compared with their reference. High TSH, high Testosterone, high Cholesterol, high insulin, low HDL, and high LDL were associated with abnormal menstruation (p‐values < 0.05). The adjusted odds of abnormal menstruation increased with increasing central obesity, (OR = 10.4; 95% CI: 2.927‐36.946) with medium and (OR = 16.0; 95% CI: 4.476‐57.475) with high central obesity.
Conclusion: An increased risk for abnormal menstruation is influenced by central obesity, heavy weight, and hormone imbalance.
Keywords: Abnormal menstruation; Central obesity; Body mass index
Abbreviations: LDL: Low-Density-Lipoprotein; VLDL: Very-Low-Density-Lipoprotein; HDL: High-Density-Lipoprotein; CHD: Coronary Heart Disease
Obesity has become one of the most important public health problems in Saudi Arabia the prevalence of overweight (BMI = 26-29.9 kg/m2) was 36.9%, in the female 31.8%, and obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) was 35.5%, in the female 44%, while morbid obesity (severe = gross= BMI ≥ 40 kg/m2) 3.2% [1]. As the prevalence of obesity increases, the prevalence of the co-morbidities associated with obesity have been increased [2]. The endocrine and metabolic disorders: Impaired glucose tolerance [3], insulin resistance [4], diabetes mellitus type 2 [5-30]. The Insulin resistance with hyperinsulinemia found to be characteristic of obesity, and even is present before the onset of hyperglycemia. After the onset of obesity, the first demonstrable changes are impairment in glucose metabolism, and increased insulin resistance, which results in hyperinsulinemia. The hyperinsulinemia in turn increases hepatic plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 synthesis and sodium reabsorption. These changes contribute to hyperlipidemia and hypertension in obese persons.
The insulin resistance characteristic of type 2 diabetes results from a combination of obesity, and genetic factors. In a study of non-diabetic offspring of two parents with type 2 diabetes, insulin sensitivity was similar to that of normal persons with no first-degree relatives with type 2 diabetes at near ideal body weight [30]. Obesity is associated with several deleterious changes in lipid metabolism.
Central fat distribution plays an important role in the serum lipid abnormalities, also unfavourable obesity-related effects include high serum concentrations of cholesterol, low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, very-low-density-lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, and reduction in serum high-density-lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol of about 5 percent [31]. The last effect may be most important since a low serum HDL cholesterol concentration carries a greater relative risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) than hypertriglyceridemia. The cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, dyslipidemia and hypertension are common [10-12].
Hyperandrogenism and early onset of polycystic ovarian syndrome, with irregular menstruation, is associated with obesity in most of the cases, Obesity plays a role in acceleration of growth and bone age leading to early onset of sexual maturation in girls [6-9].
Cholelithiasis and Fatty liver disease, found to be resolved with weight loss [13-16]. Pulmonary co-morbidities of obesity include obstructive sleep apnea, hypoventilation syndrome during sleep and episodes of severe oxygen desaturation, which resolve after weight loss as well [17-19]. Neurologic idiopathic intracranial hypertension, Slipped capital femoral epiphysis, and Tibia vara are common complications. Acne, hirsutism, acanthosis nigricans, striae, candidal intertrigo and skin abscesses are the common dermatological complications. Obesity can be cause of psychosocial consequences (Alienation, poor self esteem and depression) [20-25].
Obesity refers to an excess of body fat. The body mass index (BMI) is the accepted standard measure of obesity. Body mass index provides a guideline for weight in relation to height, and is equal to the body weight divided by the height squared [26]. The (BMI) between 26-29, 9 are considered overweight; those with BMI ≥ 30 are considered to be obese, while severe is ≥ 40 .The incidence of obesity in adolescent in United States is 18.1%, and severe is 12.5% [27]. Obese women had at least a twofold greater odd of having an irregular cycle compared with those of normal weight [28]. Fasting glucose, insulin, and testosterone are positively associated with obesity [29]. Weight loss and exercises are the main management of this disorder. No study had been done in Saudi Arabia examining the risk of obesity in menstrual abnormality among Saudi females. The aim of this study is to assess the associations between the obesity and abnormal menstruation among Saudi females.
Methods and Materials
This study was a case-control study, total of 145 Saudi females: n = 72 with normal menstruation, and n = 73 with abnormal menstruation who received gynecological care in the clinic within two years (2011-2013), at King Abdulaziz Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia (KAMC-R). An eligibility criterion was women who are married with age between 11 to 35 years. Exclusion criterions were: 1) not on hormonal treatment, 2) not pregnant, 3) not breast feeding, and 4) not diabetic patient. The data were collected from charts obtaining the age, the menstrual type (normal, abnormal), the weight (kg), BMI (kg/m2) which categorized into three groups: normal ≤ 25, over weight (26-29.9), obese (≥ 30), waist circumference (wc): normal < 80 cm, overweight 80-88 cm, and > 89 cm for central obesity using a non-stretch paper measuring tape at narrowest point between the costal border and the iliac crest. Blood samples were obtained to measure fasting insulin level, glucose level, total testosterone, TSH, cholesterol, HDL, and LDL.
Statistical analysis
The sample size was calculated with odds of 3.0, total of n = 145 women, n = 72 with normal menstruation, and n = 73 with abnormal menstruation.
Chi-square tests (Univariate analyses) were used to investigate whether demographic; obesity, increased central obesity, or hormones measurements were related to abnormal menstruation. Multivariate stepwise logistic regression was employed to identify the important risk factors that associated with an increased risk of abnormal menstruation. P-value ≤ 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. We used odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals to estimate the strength of associations. The data were analyzed with SAS, V 9.2 (SAS Institute Inc., SAS Campus Drive, Cary, North Carolina 27513, USA).
Table 1 shows the sample characteristics of the examined women. Of the 145 women, 30 (20.7%) were normal weight, 21 (14.5%) were overweight, and 94 (64.8%) were obese (Figure 1). The mean age of women was 24.1 (± SD = 3.41) years with a weight of 80.28 (± SD = 16.71) kg. 44% of the participant women had high waist circumference (> 89 cm), 29% had waist circumference between 80-88 cm, and 26.9% had normal waist circumference. Overall, 23.4% had high testosterone levels, 29.7% had high cholesterol levels, 11% had high insulin levels, 64.8% had low HDL levels, and 69.7% had high LDL levels.
Characteristics Overall Sample
n %
BMI Normal 30 20.7
Overweight 21 14.5
Obese 94 64.8
Waist circumference < 80 cm 39 26.9
80-88 cm 42 29.0
> 89 cm 64 44.1
Fasting Glucose High 1 0.7
Normal 144 99.3
TSH High 7 4.8
Normal 138 95.2
Testosterone High 34 23.4
Normal 111 76.6
cholesterol High 43 29.7
Normal 102 70.3
Insulin High 16 11.0
Normal 129 89.0
HDL Low 94 64.8
Normal 51 35.2
LDL High 101 69.7
Normal 44 30.3
Menstruation Abnormal 73 50.3
Normal 72 49.7
Age Range = 18-34 yrs 24.1 ± 3.41
Weight Range = 52-137 kg 80.28 ± 16.71
Table 1: Saudi females demographic and clinical characteristics.
Figure 1: Obesity among Saudi females.
Patients’ demographic and clinical characteristics stratified by menstruation types are shown in Table 2. The results of unadjusted (univariate) analyses show that there was significant association between obesity and menstrual abnormalities (80.8% among abnormal menstruation group vs. 48.6% among normal menstruation group, p-value = 0.001).
Characteristics Abnormal Normal P-value OR(95 CI)
73(50.3%) 72(49.7%)
n % n %
BMI Normal 7 9.6 23 31.9 0.001* 1.0
Overweight 7 9.6 14 19.4   1.6(0.475-5.680)
Obese 59 808 35 48.6   5.5(2.156-14.232)
< 80 cm 7 9.6 32 44.4 0.001* 1.0
80-88 cm 23 31.5 19 26.4   5.5(1.998-15.329)
> 89 cm 43 58.9 21 29.2   9.4(3.548-24.695)
Normal 72 98.6 72 100 1.000 1.0
High 1 1.4 0 0.0   2.0(0.1699-2.355)
TSH Normal 66 90.4 72 100 0.013* 1.0
High 7 9.6 0 0.0   2.1(1.757-2.489)
Testosterone Normal 49 67.1 62 86.1 0.007* 1.0
High 24 32.9 10 13.9   3.0(1.328-6.946)
Cholesterol Normal 43 58.9 59 81.9 0.002* 1.0
High 30 41.1 13 18.1   3.2(1.480-6.772)
Insulin Normal 58 79.5 71 98.6 0.001* 1.0
High 15 20.5 1 1.4   18.4(2.355143.171)
HDL Normal 19 26.0 32 44.4 0.020* 1.0
Low 54 74.0 40 55.6   2.3(1.130-4.577)
LDL Normal 10 13.7 34 47.2 0.001* 1.0
High 63 86.3 38 52.8   5.6(2.503-12.695)
Age/years 18-34 23.5 ± 3.3 24.6 ± 3.5 0.052 0.9(0.822-1.002)
Weight/kg 52-137 87.3 ± 15.6 73.2 ± 14.7 0.001# 1.1(1.036-1.091)
Table 2: Characteristics of menstruation abnormalities compared with the normal group. *The Chi-square statistic/Fisher’s exact test is significant at α = 0.05.
# Independent t test is significant at α = 0.05.
Figure 2 shows the percents of obesity among normal and abnormal menstruation groups. We also observed low frequency of the normal weight in the case group 7 (9.6%) while in the control group this value was 23 (31.9%). Obese women had 5.5 greater odds of having menstruation abnormalities compared with those of normal weight (OR = 5.5; 95% CI = 2.156-14.232). High (> 89 cm) central obesity was associated with menstruation abnormalities (58.9% of abnormal menstruation group vs. 29.2% of normal menstruation group, p-value = 0.001). Women with high (OR = 9.4; 95% CI = 3.548-24.695) or medium (OR = 5.5; 95% CI = 1.998-15.329) central obesity were more likely to have an abnormal menstruation compared with normal waist circumferance.
Figure 2: Association of obesity with irregular menstruation.
Obesity and high central obesity are associated with increased risks of abnormal menstruation (Figure 3 and 4). Abnormal menstruation was significantly associated with higher level of TSH (p-value = 0.013), higher level of testosterone (p-value = 0.007), higher level of cholesterol (p-value = 0.002), higher level of insulin (p-value = 0.001), lower level of HDL (p-value = 0.020), and higher level of LDL (p-value = 0.001). The results of independent t-test analysis, indicate that there was significant difference in the body weight of females (kg) between the two groups (87.3 ± 15.6 among abnormal menstrual group vs. 73.2 ± 14.7 among normal menstrual group, p-value = 0.001). There was no significant difference in the age of two groups (p-value = 0.052). There was no difference in fasting glucose frequency between abnormal and normal menstruation groups (p-value = 1.000).
Figure 3: Association of BMI (kg/m^2) with menstruation abnormalities.

Figure 4: Association of waist circumference (cm) with menstruation abnormalities.
The findings of multivariate stepwise logistic regression after controlling for all risk factors are shown in Table 3. In the multivariate analysis, a higher level of testosterone was positively associated with abnormal menstruation (p-value = 0.001; OR = 7.6; 95% CI: 2.323-24.561). A higher level of insulin was also positively associated with abnormal menstruation (p-value = 0.026; OR = 10.9; 95% CI: 1.330-88.507). As was the case for univariate analyses, high (p-value = 0.001; OR = 16.0; 95% CI: 4.476-57.475) and medium (p-value = 0.034; OR = 10.4; 95% CI: 2.927-36.946) central obesity were associated with an increased risk of abnormal menstruation.
Parameter Reference Estimate SE Wald P- value OR 95% CI
Intercept   1.32 0.56 5.53 0.019      
Waist circumference: 80-88 < 80 cm 0.64 0.30 4.48 0.034* 10.4 2.927 36.946
Waist circumference: > 89 < 80 cm 1.07 0.30 12.40 0.001* 16.0 4.476 57.475
Testosterone: High Normal 1.01 0.30 11.29 0.001* 7.6 2.323 24.561
Insulin: High Normal 1.19 0.54 4.96 0.026* 10.9 1.330 88.507
Table 3: Risk factors associated with irregular menstruation using stepwise logistic regression.
*The Wald Chi-square statistic is significant at α = 0.05.
The present study was conducted to assess the risk of obesity as a cause of abnormal menstruation among Saudi females, and its effect on the levels of fasting glucose, Insulin, Testosterone, TSH (thyroid stimulation hormone), cholesterol, HDL (high density lipoprotein), and LDL (low density lipoprotein), and to estimate the odds of obesity in women with abnormal menstruation as compared to those with normal menstruation. We got 145 women, all were matched in marital and socioeconomic status, and the study age group was ranging between 18-34 years. We found 64.8% of them were obese (BMI > 30), and 44.1% overweight (BMI 26-29.9), whereas 20.7% only were in normal weight (BMI ≤ 25), 44.1% centrally obese waist circumference > 89 cm, and 29.0% centrally overweight, whereas the normal measurements < 80 cm was 26.9% of total study groups, the average weight was 87.3 ± 15.6 kg in abnormal menstruation group (n = 73), and 73.2 ± 14.7 kg in normal menstruation group (n = 72). This reflects the prevalence of obesity and central obesity among Saudi females.
There were 80.8% obese women with abnormal menstruation, whereas 48.6% were obese in normal menstruation group, by 5.5 times increasing risk (OR) to have abnormal menstruation among obese women (P-value = 0.001) strongly significant. 9.6% normal BMI, but having abnormal menstruation vs 31.9% with normal menstruation. Even more strongly significant relation were found among abnormal menstruation women who were 58.9%of centrally obese group (WC>89 cm), compare with 29.2% central obesity but with normal menstruation, by increase risk 9.4 times (OR). In normal waist circumference group (WC > 80 cm); we found 9.6% having abnormal menstruation, vs 44.4% with normal menstruation (P-value = 0.001), and 31.5% among group of centrally overweight (WC 80-88 cm) with abnormal menstruation vs 26.4% with normal menstruation, 5.5 times (OR) increase risk of abnormal menstruation (P-value = 0.001),
In regard of hormonal effects, the strength of significant association between the high fasting blood level of Testosterone 32.9% vs 13.9% by increasing risk 3.0 times in abnormal menstruation group (P-value = 0.007), and Insulin 20.5 % vs 1.4 % by increasing risk (OR) 18 .4 times (P-value = 0.001) were found, but less significant association in elevated TSH 9.6% vs 0.0%, with increasing risk of 2.1 times in abnormal menstruation (P-value = 0.013).
When we looked to the effect on metabolic abnormal values which were in our study Cholesterol, HDL ,and LDL; similar strong association found between their abnormal levels and abnormal menstruation, for high Cholesterol 41.1% vs 18.1 % normal; OR = 3.2, (P-v = 0.002), low level of HDL (normally should be high due to its protective vascular effect) 74.0% vs 55.6% normal; OR = 2, and (P-v = 0.020), as well elevated level of LDL (badly vascular effect) 86.3% vs 52.8% normal; OR = 5.6, (P-v = 0.001).
In comparison of multivariate risk factors: obesity, and abnormal menstruation and the study variables associated risk; we found the stronger association was the waist circumference >89cm which is central obesity; by OR = 16.0, (P-v = 0.001), and elevated level of Testosterone OR=7.6, (P-v = 0.001), then the waist circumference 80-88 cm centrally overweight by OR = 10.4, (P-v = 0.034), and high Insulin level with OR = 10.9, (P-v = 0.026). The result of our study was matching the results of international researches [31].
An increased risk of abnormal menstruation is influenced by increased BMI, central obesity, and associated with hormonal disturbances.
  1. Al-Nozha MM., et al. “Obesity in Saudi Arabia”. Saudi Medical Journal 26.5 (2009): 824-829.
  2. Strauss RS and HA Pollack. “Epidemic Increase in Childhood Overweight, 1986-1998”. JAMA286.22 (2001): 2845-2845.
  3. Jolliffe D. “Extent of overweight among US children and adolescents from 1971 to 2000”. International journal of obesity and related metabolic disorders 28.1 (2004): 4-9.
  4. Moller DE and JS Flier. “Insulin resistence--mechanisms, syndromes, and implications”. The New England Journal of Medicine 325.13 (1991): 938-948.
  5. Molnar D. “The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents”. International journal of obesity and related metabolic disorders 28.Suppl 3 (2004): S70.
  6. Buggs C and RL Rosenfield. “Polysystic ovary syndrome in adolescence”. Endocrinology Metabolism Clinics of North America 34.3 (2005): 677-705.
  7. Ehrmann DA. “Polycystic ovary syndrome”. The New England Journal of Medicine 352.12 (2005): 1223-1236.
  8. Reinehr T., et al. “Hyperthyrotropinemia in obese children is reversible after weight loss and is not related to lipids”. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 91.8 (2006): 3088-3091.
  9. Kaplowitz PB., et al. “Earlier onset of puberty in girls; relation to increased body mass index and race”. Pediatrics 108.2 (2001): 347-353.
  10. Caprio S., et al. “Fat distribution and cardiovascular risk factors in obese adolescent girls: importance of the intraabdominal fat depot”. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 64.1 (1996): 12-17.
  11. Harel Z., et al. “Isolated low HDL cholesterol emerges as the most common lipid abnormality among obese adolescents”. Clinical paediatrics 49.1 (2010): 29-34.
  12. Stabouli S., et al. “Adolescent obesity is associated with high ambulatory blood pressure and increased carotid intimal-medial thickness”. Journal of Pediatrics 147.5: 651-656.
  13. Schwimmer JB., et al. “Obesity, insulin resistence, and other clinicopathological correlates of pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease”. Journal of Pediatrics 143.4 (2003): 500-505.
  14. Radetti G., et al. “Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in obese children evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging”. Acta Paediatrica 95.7 (2006): 833-837.
  15. Reinehr T., et al. “Lifestyle intervention in obese children with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: 2-year follow up study”. Archives of Disease in Childhood 94.6 (2009): 437-442.
  16. Kaechele V., et al. “Prevalence of gallbladder stone disease in obese children and adolescents: influence of the degree of obesity, sex, and pubertal development”. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 42.1 (2006): 66-70.
  17. Verhulst SL., et al. “Sleep-disordered breathing in overweight and obese children and adolescents: prevalence, characteristics and the role of fat distribution. Archives of Disease in Childhood 92.3 (2007): 205-208.
  18. Krebs NF., et al. “Assessment of child and adolescent overweight and obesity”. Pediatrics 120.Suppl 4: S193.
  19. Speiser PW., et al. “Childhood obesity”. The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism 90.3 (2005): 1871-1887.
  20. Scott IU., et al. “Idiopathic intracrinal hypertention in children and adolescents”. American Journal of Ophthalmology 124.2 (1997): 253-255.
  21. Taylor ED., et al. “Orthobpedic complications of overweight in children and adolescents”. Pediatrics 117.6 (2006): 2167-2174.
  22. Davids JR., et al. A dynamic biomechanical analysis of the etiology of adolescent tibia vara”. Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics 16.4 (1996): 461-468.
  23. Hud JA., et al. “Prevalence and significance of acanthosis nigricans in an adult obese population”. Archives of Dermatology 128.7 (1992): 941-944.
  24. French SA., et al. “Self-esteem and obesity in children and adolescents: a literature review”. Obesity research 3.5 (1995): 479-490.
  25. Falkner NH., et al. “Scocial, educational. And psychological correlates of weight status in adolescents”. Obesity research 9.1 (2001): 32-42.
  26. Dietz WH and TN Robinson. “Use of the body mass index (BMI) as a measure of overweight in children and adolescents”. Journal of Pediatrics 132.2 (1998): 191.
  27. Ogden CL., et al. “Prevalence of high body mass index in US children and adolescents, 2007-2008”. JAMA 303.3 (2010): 242-249.
  28. APGO educational series on women's health issues. Clinical management of abnormal uterine bleeding. Association of Professors of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 2002.
  29. Wei S., et al. “Obesity and menstrual irregularity: associations with SHBG, testosterone, and insulin”. Obesity Journal 17.5 (2009): 1070-1076.
  30. Kahn CR. “Banting Lecture. Insulin action, diabetogenes, and the cause of type II diabetes”. Diabetes 43.8 (1994): 1066-1084.
  31. Poirier P., et al. “Obesity and cardiovascular disease: pathophysiology, evaluation, and effect of weight loss”. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology 26.5 (2006): 968-976.
Copyright: © 2015 Leena Mawaldi., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

PubMed Indexed Article

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777

EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033

EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992

EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505

EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793

EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211

EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047

EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560

EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318

EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819

EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840

EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476

EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658

EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489

EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278

EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108

EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571

EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333

EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883

EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001

EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937

EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723

EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726

EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646

EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226

EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268

News and Events

June Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the June issue of respective journals and can be viewed in the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for August Issue

Ecronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the August issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before July 13, 2020.

Certificate of Publication

Ecronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

Ecronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.

Immediate Assistance

The prime motto of this team is to clarify all the queries without any delay or hesitation to avoid the inconvenience. For immediate assistance on your queries please don't hesitate to drop an email to