Research Article
Volume 9 Issue 3 - 2020
Factors Associated with First Antenatal Care Booking among Pregnant Women at a Reproductive Health Clinic in Tanzania: A Cross Sectional Study
Lucy Kisaka1* and Sebalda Leshabari2
1School of Nursing and Midwifery, The Aga Khan University, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
2Department of Community Health Nursing, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
*Corresponding Author: Lucy Kisaka, School of Nursing and Midwifery, The Aga Khan University, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
Received: December 17, 2019; Published: February 28, 2020




Abstract

Background: Antenatal care (ANC) is a key basic intervention targeting maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends the first ANC booking before 12 weeks of gestation. This enhances positive maternal and fetal outcomes through early detection of complications, prompt treatment, referral, and management of expected physiological changes. Despite high ANC coverage (98%), free contacts, and easy accessibility, little is known why few (24%) pregnant women in Tanzania book their first ANC-visit early. This study aimed to identify factors associated with first ANC booking among pregnant women in a Tanzanian reproductive health clinic.

Methods: Systematic random sampling was used to recruit 311 eligible pregnant women. Study data were collected using a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire containing 22 closed ended questions. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Frequency distribution tables and figures were generated. Multivariate analysis was used to assess the influence of the independent variables on the dependent variable. A p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: In total, 311 pregnant women were interviewed; 31.2% (n = 97) booked their first ANC-visit within 12 weeks of gestation and 68.8% (n = 214) after 12 weeks of gestation. Early ANC booking was associated with tertiary education, planned pregnancy, earlier pregnancy recognition, and experience or presence of any complications. Commonly reported barriers to early ANC booking included not knowing the recommended time to initiate booking (37.6%), waiting for the fetus to move (28.6%), and previous experience of waiting a long time (15.8%).

Conclusion: Most pregnant women booked their first ANC visit later than WHO and national recommendations. Women thus miss accurate early pregnancy assessment for better positive pregnancy outcomes. 

Keywords: Antenatal Care; First Antenatal Booking; Early ANC Booking; Late ANC Booking; Pregnant Women

References

  1. Musendo M., et al. “Delayed First Antenatal Care Visit by Pregnant Women: Correlates in a Zimbabwean Peri-Urban District”. International Journal of Innovative Research and Development 5.7 (2016): 307-315. 
  2. Nyamtema AS., et al. “The quality of antenatal care in rural Tanzania: what is behind the number of visits?”. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 12.1 (2012): 1. 
  3. World Health Organization recommendations on Antenatal care for positive pregnancy experience 152 (2016). 
  4. Gudayu TW., et al. “Timing and factors associated with first antenatal care booking among pregnant mothers in Gondar Town North West Ethiopia”. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 14.1 (2014): 287. 
  5. Kearns A., et al. “Focused antenatal care in Tanzania”. Women's Health Initiative (2014): 1-13. 
  6. Gross K., et al. “Timing of antenatal care for adolescent and adult pregnant women in South-Eastern Tanzania”. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 12.1 (2012): 16. 
  7. Girum T. “Assessment of Timing of First Antenatal Care Visit and Associated Factors among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Care in Dilla Town Governmental Health Institutions, Southern Ethiopia”. Advances in Integrative Medicine 5.3 (2016): 1-5. 
  8. Lerebo W. “Magnitude and Associated Factors of Late Booking for Antenatal Care in Public Health Centers of Adigrat Town, Tigray, Ethiopia”. Clinics in Mother and Child Health 12.1 (2015): 1-8. 
  9. Kisuule I., et al. “Timing and reasons for coming late for the first antenatal care visit by pregnant women at Mulago hospital, Kampala Uganda”. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 13.1 (2013): 121. 
  10. Belayneh T., et al. “Previous early antenatal service utilization improves timely booking: Cross-sectional study at University of Gondar Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia”. Journal of Pregnancy 2014 (2014): 7. 
  11. Njiku F., et al. “Prevalence and factors associated with late antenatal care visit among pregnant women in Lushoto, Tanzania”. Tanzania Journal of Health Research 19.3 (2017): 1-6. 
  12. Ministry of Health, Community Development, Gender, Elderly and Children (MoHCDGEC), [Tanzania Mainland], Ministry of Health (MoH) [Zanzibar], National Bureau of Statistics (NBS), Office of the Chief Government Statistician (OCGS), and ICF. Tanzania Demogr Heal Surv Malar Indic Survery 2015-16. 
  13. G Lilungulu A. “Reported Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Antenatal Care Services among Women in Dodoma Municipal, Tanzania”. Journal of Pediatrics and Neonatal Care 4.1 (2016): 1-8. 
  14. Haddrill R., et al. “Understanding delayed access to antenatal care: a qualitative interview study”. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 14.1 (2014): 207. 
  15. Kirkwood B and Sterne J. “Essential Medical Statistics. second edition”. Blackwell Publishing (2003): 513. 
  16. Abuka T and Alemu A. “Assessment of Timing of First Antenatal Care Booking and Associated Factors among Pregnant Women who attend Antenatal Care at Health Facilities in Dilla town, Gedeo Zone, Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples Region, Ethiopia, 2014”. Journal of Pregnancy and Neonatal Medicine 3.3 (2016). 
  17. Hanna G., et al. “Timing of First Antenatal Care Visit and its Associated Factors among Pregnant Women Attending Public Health Facilities in Addis”. Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences 27.1 (2017): 139. 
  18. Bucher S., et al. “A prospective observational description of frequency and timing of antenatal care attendance and coverage of selected interventions from sites in Argentina , Guatemala”. Reproductive Health 12.2 (2015): S12. 
  19. Jeremiah I., et al. “Factors Influencing Gestational Age at Booking at The University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital South-South Nigeria”. International Journal of Tropical Disease and Health 6.2 (2015): 52-57. 
  20. M.Turyasiima., et al. “Determinants of first antenatal care visit by pregnant women at community-based education, Research and Service sites in Northern Uganda”. East African Medical Journal 91.9 (2014): 317-322. 
  21. Gebremeskel F., et al. “Timing of First Antenatal Care Attendance and Associated Factors among Pregnant Women in Arba Minch Town and Arba Minch District, Gamo Gofa Zone, South Ethiopia”. Journal of Environmental and Public Health (2015). 
  22. Hamdela B., et al. “Predictors of Early Antenatal Care Booking in Government Health Facilities of Hossana Town, Hadiya Zone, South Ethiopia: Unmatched Case-Control Study”. Journal of AIDS and Clinical Research 6.11 (2015): 1-7. 
  23. Okhiai O., et al. “Factors Contributing to Late Antenatal Booking Among Pregnant Women in Ibore Primary Health Center in Esan Central Local Government Area , Edo State”. International Journal of Public Health Research 3.6 (2015): 331-335. 
  24. Fisseha G., et al. “Predictors of Timing of First Antenatal Care Booking at Public Health Centers in Mekelle City, Northern Ethiopia”. Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics 3.3 (2015): 55-60. 
  25. Ndidi EP., et al. “Reasons given by pregnant women for late initiation of antenatal care in the Niger Delta, Nigeria”. Ghana Medical Journal 44.2 (2010): 47-51.
  26. Andrew EVW., et al. “Factors affecting attendance at and timing of formal antenatal care: Results from a qualitative study in Madang, Papua New Guinea”. PLoS One 9.5 (2014). 
  27. Ejeta E., et al. “Factors determining late antenatal care booking and the content of care among pregnant mother attending antenatal care services in East Wollega administrative zone, West Ethiopia”. Pan African Medical Journal 27.184 (2017): 1-7. 
  28. Tuladhar H and Dhakal N. “Impact of Antenatal Care on Maternal and Perinatal utcome: A Study at Nepal Medical College Teaching Hospital”. Nepal Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 6.2 (2012): 37-43. 
Citation: Lucy Kisaka and Sebalda Leshabari. “Factors Associated with First Antenatal Care Booking among Pregnant Women at a Reproductive Health Clinic in Tanzania: A Cross Sectional Study”. EC Gynaecology 9.3 (2020): 01-12.

PubMed Indexed Article


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777


EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033


EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992


EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505


EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793


EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211


EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047


EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560


EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318


EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819


EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840


EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476


EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658


EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489


EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278


EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108


EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571


EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333


EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883


EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001


EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937


EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723


EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726


EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646


EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226


EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268


News and Events


June Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the June issue of respective journals and can be viewed in the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for August Issue

Ecronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the August issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before July 13, 2020.

Certificate of Publication

Ecronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

Ecronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.

Immediate Assistance

The prime motto of this team is to clarify all the queries without any delay or hesitation to avoid the inconvenience. For immediate assistance on your queries please don't hesitate to drop an email to editor@ecronicon.uk