Research Article
Volume 11 Issue 9 - 2022
Can Chorionic Villi Angiogenic Protein Expression Clarify the Vascular Abnormality Seen in Preeclampsia?
Jayasri Basu*, Stephanie Rodríguez Vivoni, Leonardo Greogorio Ramos, Rocio Villeda Gonzalez, Jeismar Coromoto Bello Zambrano and Magdy Mikhail
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, BronxCare Health System, Bronx, New York, USA
*Corresponding Author: Jayasri Basu, Director-Graduate Medical Education, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, BronxCare Health System, Clinical Assistant Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Reproductive Science, Icahn School of Medicine of Mount Sinai, Bronx, New York, USA.
Received: August 04, 2022; Published: August 18, 2022




Abstract

Objective: We have investigated the expression patterns of chorionic villi vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)165, VEGF165b, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) proteins in normal pregnancies and preeclampsia to determine if the protein expression patterns could contribute in explaining the vascular abnormality seen in preeclampsia. Differences in the placental proteins between Black American and Hispanic groups were explored.

Methods: Term placentas from normotensive healthy women and placentas from women (37 weeks+ gestation) with preeclampsia, diagnosed by ACOG's criteria were investigated. Chorionic villi expressions of the four proteins were determined by ELISA; each ELISA kit using monoclonal antibody to the respective human proteins as capture antibody.

Results: Independent T test comparing normal pregnancy and preeclampsia showed placental VEGF165 protein was higher in normal pregnancy (p = 0.001); VEGF165b, MMP-9 and TNF-α proteins were higher in preeclampsia (p = 0.05, p = 0.036 and p = 0.037, respectively). Mothers' systolic and diastolic blood pressures were higher (p = 0.000), placental weight was comparable; and newborn weights were lower (p = 0.000) in preeclampsia. In normal pregnancy, the two VEGF165 isoforms were correlated (r = 0.261, p = 0.005) and VEGF165 was negatively correlated to MMP-9 protein (r = -0.185, p = 0.047). Ethnicity was self-reported and the distribution was 23.3% of Black Americans and 69.8% of Hispanic American descent. Study variables differed between the ethnic groups.

Conclusion: Preeclampsia is a multifactorial disease. The findings suggest that placental angiogenic proteins may be contributory factors in the pathophysiology of the disease. Differences in VEGF165 ratios, mothers’ blood pressure and newborn weights were significantly different between normal pregnancy and preeclampsia, while placental weight was comparable, which suggests that placental angiogenic processes of the two groups may be different. The synergistic actions of VEGF165 proteins in the third trimester of normal pregnancy, we suggest, may have favored sprouting angiogenesis maximizing blood flow; resulting in healthy newborns with normal weight. The imbalance in placental VEGF165 proteins, we hypothesize, may be an angiogenic biomarker triggering angiogenesis of the intussusceptive type. The higher expression of MMP-9 protein in preeclampsia may facilitate intussusceptive angiogenesis to breakdown the extracellular matrix, to allow the capillary plexus to grow. Higher TNF-α protein in preeclampsia may be one of the compensatory mechanisms to assist the dilation of the blood vessels allowing greater amounts of blood to be transported to the fetus. The findings of this study additionally revealed that the correlations between the studied placental proteins differed significantly between the two ethnic groups.

Keywords: Pregnancy-Specific Protein Expressions; Normal Human Pregnancy; Preeclampsia, VEGF165, VEGF165b, MMP-9 and TNF-α Proteins; Hispanic and Black Ethnic Groups; Ethnic Differences, Methods of Delivery, Fetal Gender

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Citation: Jayasri Basu., et al. “Can Chorionic Villi Angiogenic Protein Expression Clarify the Vascular Abnormality Seen in Preeclampsia?”. EC Gynaecology 11.9 (2022): 27-38.

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