Volume 11 Issue 9 - 2022
Maternal Ophthalmic Artery Doppler in Prediction of Pre-Eclampsia
Michail Matalliotakis1, Alexandra Trivli2* and Athina Patelarou3
1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Venizeleio General Hospital of Heraklion, Crete, Greece
2Department of Ophthalmology, General Hospital of Agios Nikolaos, Lasithi, Crete, Greece
3Department of Nursing, Faculty of Health Sciences, Hellenic Mediterranean University, Heraklion, Greece
*Corresponding Author: Alexandra Trivli, Department of Ophthalmology, General Hospital of Agios Nikolaos, Lasithi, Crete, Greece.
Received: August 07, 2022; Published: August 10, 2022

Pre-eclampsia (PE) demonstrates a chief cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality with an incidence ranges from 3% to 10%, globally [1]. According to Wright D., et al. traditionally, prediction of PE can be achieved in screening by a combination of a patient’s anamnesis, maternal demographics and various biomarkers in the first, second or third trimester of pregnancy [2].

Recently, in a systemic review and meta-analysis, the use of maternal ophthalmic artery doppler is extensively discussed and compared with the effectiveness of uterine artery doppler in prediction of PE [3]. In 1999, Belfort MA., et al. observed that there is a decrease in impedance to flow and an increase in flow velocity in the ophthalmic arteries in pre eclamptic women compared to low-risk pregnancies [4]. Although, various articles thus far have shown that altered maternal ophthalmic artery doppler poses a major risk for PE, the association between ophthalmic artery doppler and PE can be linked to nonphysiologic hemodynamic adjustments during pregnancy and not to the trophoblastic invasion theory. Gurgel Alves JA., et al. reported that the efficiency of ophthalmic artery first diastolic peak (PD1) in the 11 to 14 weeks’ gestation scan, presents an equal prognostic marker to uterine artery doppler for development of PE later in pregnancy [5]. Recently, Kusuma RA., et al. recommended that combining classical biomarkers for PE occurrence with ophthalmic artery doppler peak ratio (PR) might improve the accuracy of PE prediction at the nuchal scan [6].


  1. Duley L. “The Global Impact of Pre-eclampsia and Eclampsia”. Seminars in Perinatology3 (2009): 130-137.
  2. Wright D., et al. “The competing risk approach for prediction of preeclampsia”. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 223 (2020): 12-23.
  3. Kalafat E., et al. “Ophthalmic artery Doppler for prediction of pre-eclampsia: systematic review and meta-analysis”. Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology6 (2018): 731-737.
  4. Belfort MA., et al. “Transcranial and orbital Doppler ultrasound in normal pregnancy and preeclampsia”. Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology 42 (1999): 479-506.
  5. Gurgel Alves JA., et al. “First-trimester maternal ophthalmic artery Doppler analysis for prediction of pre-eclampsia”. Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology 44 (2014): 411-418.
  6. Kusuma RA., et al. “Ophthalmic artery Doppler for pre-eclampsia prediction at the first trimester: a Bayesian survival-time model”. The Journal of Ultrasound (2022).
  7. Matias DS., et al. “Predictive value of ophthalmic artery Doppler velocimetry in relation to development of pre-eclampsia”. Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology 44 (2014): 419-426.
  8. Praciano de Souza PC., et al. “Second trimester screening of preeclampsia using maternal characteristics and uterine and ophthalmic artery Doppler”. Ultraschall in der Medizin 39 (2018): 190-197.
  9. Sapantzoglou I., et al. “Ophthalmic artery Doppler in combination with other biomarkers in prediction of pre-eclampsia at 19-23 weeks' gestation”. Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology1 (2021): 75-83.
  10. Sarno M., et al. “Ophthalmic artery Doppler in combination with other biomarkers in prediction of pre-eclampsia at 35-37 weeks' gestation”. Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology4 (2021): 600-606.
Citation: Alexandra Trivli., et al. “Maternal Ophthalmic Artery Doppler in Prediction of Pre-Eclampsia”. EC Gynaecology 11.9 (2022): 01-02.

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