Review Article
Volume 11 Issue 1 - 2022
The Development for Interpretation and Application of Biomarkers in Female Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT)
Nicholas A Kerna1,2*, Hilary M Holets3,4, Kevin D Pruitt5,6, ND Victor Carsrud7, Rashad Roberson8, Jerome Adadzi9, Shain Waugh10, Raymond Nomel11, Uzoamaka Nwokorie12, Jamie Hujan13 and John V Flores3,4
1SMC–Medical Research, Thailand
2First InterHealth Group, Thailand
3Beverly Hills Wellness Surgical Institute, USA
4Orange Partners Surgicenter, USA
5Kemet Medical Consultants, USA
6PBJ Medical Associates, LLC, USA
7Lakeline Wellness Center, USA
8Georgetown American University, College of Medicine, Guyana
9Sam’s Club Pharmacy, USA
10Fettle Path, USA
11All Saints University, College of Medicine, St. Vincent and the Grenadines
12University of Washington, USA
13Windsor University School of Medicine at St. Kitts and Nevis
*Corresponding Author: Nicholas A Kerna, (mailing address) POB47 Phatphong, Suriwongse Road, Bangkok, Thailand 10500.
Received: September 30, 2021; Published: December 31, 2021


The research and application for treatment determination and monitoring of biomarkers in hormone replacement therapy is a comparably novel domain. Currently, regulations are limited and insufficient, but are evolving. Nevertheless, there is decisive anticipation of what future biomarker research will reveal and apply more specifically to negative symptoms and adverse disorders, particularly affecting females—with the end goal of improving and enhancing their quality of life.

Considering multiple biological outcomes, hormone replacement therapy (HRT) performs a vital role in determining treatment recommendations and regimes for many menopausal symptoms and conditions: cancer, diabetes, cognitive decline, osteoporosis, and autoimmune disorders.

Targeted treatments are challenging to achieve for some female hormone-related conditions and disorders. Nevertheless, physicians frequently order biomarker analyses. Conventional biomarkers, such as blood glucose, blood pressure, hormone levels, and mineral levels, can be identified in in-clinic labs. However, reference laboratories are typically utilized to develop biomarker panels, especially for rare or novel biomarker analysis, thus ensuring appropriate therapeutic regimes.

Biomarkers, measured in the body, influence or predict the incidence of outcome or disease. Biomarkers are more characterized explicitly as biomarkers of risk stratification, disease detection, diagnosis, prognosis, and predictive of a disease or disorder.

Biochemical markers comprise lipids, inflammatory (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and leukocyte count), adipokines, endothelial (E-selectin, P-selectin, ICAM, and VCAM), glucose tolerance (fasting glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, IGF-1, and metabolic syndrome), hemostatic (D-dimer, factor VIII, von Willebrand factor, homocysteine, fibrinogen, tissue factor pathway inhibitor, and acquired activated protein C resistance), matrix metalloproteinases, and sex steroid hormones (such as globulin-binding sex hormone).

Genetic markers cover factor V Leiden, glycoprotein IIIa leu33pro, gene variants (related to sex hormone biosynthesis, metabolism, and signaling), genome-wide association studies (GWAS), and exome sequencing (for gene discovery), gene variants (in the ABO blood group), and polymorphisms (of estrogen and progesterone receptors).

Various and distinct technologies are utilized to measure specific body fluids, cellular content, tissue-based composition, and other physiological measures; also, imaging techniques are employed. Biomarkers may be hormones, enzymes, glycoproteins, oncofetal antigens, receptors, or changes in tumors (such as mutations, amplifications, or translocations). Specific biomarkers are identified in special studies for the same or similar diseases or disorders.

Keywords: Blood Panels; Biopsy; Hormones; Risk Stratification; Specimen; Validity


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Citation: Kerna NA, Holets HM, Pruitt KD, Carsrud NDV, Roberson R, Adadzi J, Waugh S, Nomel R, Nwokorie U, Hujan J, Flores JV. “The Development for Interpretation and Application of Biomarkers in Female Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT)”. EC Gynaecology 11.1 (2022): 60-68.

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