Research Article
Volume 11 Issue 1 - 2022
Prevalence and Factors Associated with Unintended Pregnancies among Women Infected with HIV in Tanzania 2020
Simon Magodi1*, Loveness Urio2, Rogath Kishimba3, Doreen Kamori4, Munanga Boaz5 and Lucia Eustace6
1Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Sciences, Mbeya Zonal Referral Hospital ,Tanzania
2Laboratory Training Programs, Rogath Kishimba, Tanzania MoHCDGEC
3Tanzania Ministry of Health, Community Development, Gender, Elderly and Children
4Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Tanzania
5Walter Reed Program, Tanzania
6Missenyi District Council Health Department Kagera, Tanzania
*Corresponding Author: Simon Magodi, Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Sciences, Mbeya Zonal Referral Hospital ,Tanzania.
Received: August 30, 2021; Published: December 24, 2021


Background: Family Planning (FP) programs have helped women globally to avoid millions of unintended pregnancies which could be associated with abortions, morbidity, and mortality on mothers and newborns. Globally, about 220 million women have the unsatisfactory need for FP and 80 million unexpected pregnancies occur each year and in sub-Saharan Africa around 14 million each year. In 2018, the prevalence of unplanned pregnancies among HIV women was estimated to be 44% globally and 68% in the USA, 35% - 65% in sub-Saharan Africa and 71% in South Africa. Pregnancy in HIV infection has been reported to be associated with increased risks of morbidity, mortality and psychological complications such as: depression, suicidal thoughts and anxiety. In the Mbeya region where the prevalence of HIV is high, little is known on the prevalence and the factors associated with unintended pregnancy among HIV positive women.

Objective: Therefore, the present study aimed to determine the prevalence and factors associated with unintended pregnancies among HIV women in Mbeya region.

Method: This was a health facility-based cross-sectional study that was conducted from January to February 2020 among 388 HIV-infected pregnant women at seven Health facilities in Mbeya Region. London Measure of Unintended Pregnancy tool was used for assessing the features of unintended pregnancy. Data were analyzed using STATA version 15.1, where the p-value < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant.

Results: The prevalence of unintended pregnancy was 61.14% (n = 388). The mean age of the participants was 28.35 (SD = 7.20) years. Among the age group of 25 - 34 years of women 112 (61.20%) had unplanned pregnancies. After adjusted analysis, women with single marital status, private employee, drinking alcohol, do not use contraceptive method, testing for CD4 and HIV Viral load were found to have statistical significant associated on unintended pregnancy. On the use of any contraceptive method, the odds of unintended pregnancy among the women who don’t use contraceptive method were 2.08 times more likely than those who use contraceptive method (aPR = 2.08; 95%CI; 1.60 - 2.70) at p < 0.001. Also, the odds of having unintended pregnancy among the women who had tested for low CD4 count (0 - 349 cells/mm3) were 1.28 times more likely than those who had tested CD4 count greater than or equal to 350 cells/mm3 (aPR = 1.28; 95%CI; 1.02 - 1.61) at p < 0.03.

Conclusion: The present study revealed that over half (61.14%) of the HIV-infected pregnant women attending RCH/ANC in Mbeya Region had unplanned pregnancy experience. This indicates unintended pregnancy is one of the major reproductive health problems in PMTCT and also in the study area.

Keywords: Unintended Pregnancy; Family Planning; HIV; PMTCT; RCH, ANC; CD4


  1. Damian DJ., et al. “Prevalence and factors influencing modern contraceptive use among HIV-positive women in Kilimanjaro region, northern Tanzania”. Contraception and Reproductive Medicine1 (2018): 1-9.
  2. Iyun V., et al. “Prevalence and determinants of unplanned pregnancy in HIV-positive and HIV-negative pregnant women in Cape Town, South Africa: a cross- sectional study” (2018): 1-10.
  3. Wellings K., et al. “The prevalence of unplanned pregnancy and associated factors in Britain: findings from the third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3)”. Lancet 9907 (2013): 1807-1816.
  4. Mccoy SI., et al. “Unmet Need for Family Planning, Contraceptive Failure, and Unintended Pregnancy among HIV-Infected and HIV-Uninfected Women in Zimbabwe” 9.8 (2014).
  5. Kikuchi K., et al. “High rate of unintended pregnancies after knowing of HIV infection among HIV positive women under antiretroviral treatment in Kigali, Rwanda” 5.6 (2011): 255-263.
  6. Smits Ak., et al. “Contraceptive use and pregnancy decision making among women with HIV”. AIDS Patient Care STDS 12 (1999): 739-746.
  7. Sutton MY., et al. “Unplanned pregnancies and contraceptive use among HIV- positive women in care (2018): 1-14.
  8. Adeniyi OV., et al. “High rate of unplanned pregnancy in the context of integrated family planning and HIV care services in South Africa” (2018): 4-11.
  9. Loutfy MR., et al. “High prevalence of unintended pregnancies in HIV‐positive women of reproductive age in Ontario, Canada: a retrospective study”. HIV Medicine2 (2012): 107-117.
  10. Eliason S., et al. “Determinants of unintended pregnancies in rural Ghana” (2014): 1-9.
  11. Albert AYK., et al. “Investigation of factors associated with spontaneous preterm birth in pregnant women living with HIV (2020).
  12. Brittain AK., et al. “Factors associated with alcohol use prior to and during pregnancy among HIV-infected pregnant women in Cape Town, South Africa”. Drug and Alcohol Dependence (2016).
  13. Ekwempu AI., et al. “Comparison of CD4 Cell Counts in Pregnant HIV-Seropositive and HIV-Seronegative Nigerian Women 43.5 (2012): 168-171.
  14. Zone S and Region O. “Evaluation of Antiretroviral Therapy Initiated Among Pregnant Women Under Option B + by Viral Load and CD4 Count Outcomes in Selected Hospitals of West” (2020): 127-134.
Citation: Simon Magodi., et al. “Prevalence and Factors Associated with Unintended Pregnancies among Women Infected with HIV in Tanzania 2020”. EC Gynaecology 11.1 (2022): 12-19.

PubMed Indexed Article

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777

EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033

EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992

EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505

EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793

EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211

EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047

EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560

EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318

EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819

EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840

EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476

EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658

EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489

EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278

EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108

EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571

EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333

EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883

EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001

EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937

EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723

EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726

EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646

EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226

EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268

News and Events

February Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the February issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

ECronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before February 23, 2023.

Certificate of Publication

ECronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

ECronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.