Review Article
Volume 10 Issue 5 - 2021
Coronavirus Disease 2019 and the Fetus
Hisham Arab1* and Rola El Rassi2
1Program Director at Maternal and Fetal Health Program at Dr Arab Medical Center, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
2Research Associate at Maternal and Fetal Health Program at Dr Arab Medical Center, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
*Corresponding Author: Hisham Arab, Program Director at Maternal and Fetal Health Program, Dr Arab Medical Center, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
Received: March 24, 2021; Published: April 06, 2021




Abstract

The outbreak of COVID-19 and its classification as a pandemic has raised many alarms. The impact of the SARS-CoV-2 virus on the pregnant woman and her unborn child is of utmost concern. Previous viral outbreaks taught us that this population is very vulnerable and among the most affected. Pregnant women infected with COVID-19 were associated with a higher rate of preterm birth, cesarean section, and perinatal death, though it appears that those who are critically ill are at an increased risk of such complications. One major concern is the transmission of this virus from the mother to her fetus during pregnancy. Although rare, review of the literature has indicated that it is possible, with some reporting that 30% of infections were likely due to vertical transmission. The impact of the infection in the neonate however has been reported to be mild and none worrying. A multitude of many circumstantial factors may protect or harm the fetus such as the allogenic rejection of the decidua, the buffering nature of the placenta, the indirect effects of the lockdown and its repercussions, or the possible teratogenic effect of antiviral medications if used. Further studies are needed to assess not only short-term outcomes but also long-term outcomes, and particularly fetal programming.

Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; Maternal Infection; Fetal Infection; Pregnancy; Outcomes; Vertical Transmission; Fetal Programming

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Citation: Hisham Arab and Rola El Rassi. “Coronavirus Disease 2019 and the Fetus”. EC Gynaecology 10.5 (2020): 24-36.

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