Review Article
Volume 9 Issue 9 - 2020
An Overview of the Management and Treatment of Postpartum Depression (PPD)
Nicholas A Kerna1*, Uzoamaka Nwokorie2, Chidi Okechukwu David3, Olufemi Odugbemi4 and Cynthia Uju5,6
1SMC–Medical Research, Thailand
2University of Washington, USA
3Tender Touch Hospital, Nigeria
4Alex Ekwueme Federal University Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, Nigeria
5College of Health Sciences, Igbinedion University, Okada, Edo State, Nigeria
6University of Port-Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Nigeria
*Corresponding Author: Nicholas A Kerna, POB47 Phatphong, Suriwongse Road, Bangkok, Thailand 10500.
Received: July 23, 2020; Published: August 31, 2020


Postpartum depression (PPD) can result in insomnia, crying spells, anxiety, fatigue, poor concentration, and depressed mood. Further symptoms of PPD may include anxiety and thoughts of harming the baby. It is estimated that 10–15% of women suffer from some form of PPD, mild, moderate, or severe. PPD disrupts the normal and healthy bonding between mother and newborn and has detrimental effects on relationships within the family and community. It is challenging to accurately diagnose and effectively treat PPD promptly; PPD is considered under-diagnosed. Alternative and complementary medicine approaches are being used to treat or ameliorate the symptoms of PPD, in light of concerns regarding the possible side effects of pharmacologic agents in the breast milk. Still, with the advances in diagnosis and treatment, much more needs to be done regarding early identification of risk factors, prevention, and the management and treatment of postpartum depression.

Keywords: Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale; Postpartum Depression; Psychosis; Vitamin B12


  1. Landsman A., et al. “Distinctive gene expression profile in women with a history of postpartum depression”. Genomics1 (2017): 1-8.
  2. Nellhaus EM., et al. “History of postpartum depression as a contributor to the severity of NAS”. Addictive Behaviours 89 (2019): 78-84.
  3. Martin D. “Charlotte Perkins Gilman and "The Yellow Wallpaper"”. The American Journal of Psychiatry 5 (2007): 736.
  4. Cameron EE., et al. “What do dads want? Treatment preferences for paternal postpartum depression”. Journal of Affective Disorders 215 (2017): 62-70.
  5. Ghaedrahmati M., et al. “Postpartum depression risk factors: A narrative review”. Journal of Education and Health Promotion 6 (2017): 60.
  6. Kanes SJ., et al. “Open‐label, proof‐of‐concept study of brexanolone in the treatment of severe postpartum depression”. Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical and Experimental2 (2017): e2576.
  7. Silverman ME., et al. “The risk factors for postpartum depression: A population‐based study”. Depression and Anxiety2 (2017): 178-187.
  8. Couto TC., et al. “Postpartum depression: A systematic review of the genetics involved”. World Journal of Psychiatry 1 (2015): 103-111.
  9. Rees S., et al. “The impact of maternal prenatal and postnatal anxiety on children's emotional problems: a systematic review”. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 2 (2019): 257-280.
  10. Sangsawang B., et al. “Interventions for the prevention of postpartum depression in adolescent mothers: a systematic review”. Archives of Women's Mental Health2 (2019): 215-228.
  11. Yonkers KA., et al. “Diagnosis, pathophysiology, and management of mood disorders in pregnant and postpartum women”. Obstetrics and Gynecology 4 (2011): 961-977.
  12. Prevatt BS., et al. “Peer-support intervention for postpartum depression: Participant satisfaction and program effectiveness”. Midwifery 64 (2018): 38-47.
  13. Ruyak SL and Qeadan F. “Use of the Antenatal Risk Questionnaire to Assess Psychosocial Risk Factors Associated with Risk for Postpartum Depression: A Pilot Study”. Journal of Midwifery and Women's Health (2018): 23.
  14. Lakkis NA and Mahmassani DM. “Screening instruments for depression in primary care: a concise review for clinicians”. Postgraduate Medical Journal 1 (2015): 99-106.
  15. Stewart DE and Vigod SN. “Postpartum Depression: Pathophysiology, Treatment, and Emerging Therapeutics”. The Annual Review of Medicine 70 (2019): 183-196.
  16. Milgrom J., et al. “Treatment of postnatal depression with cognitive behavioural therapy, sertraline and combination therapy: a randomised controlled trial”. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 49.3 (2015): 236-245.
  17. McCloskey RJ and Reno R. “Complementary health approaches for postpartum depression: A systematic review”. Social Work in Mental Health1 (2019): 106-128.
  18. Food and Drug Administration. “Guidance for Industry: General Considerations for Pediatric Pharmacokinetic Studies for Drugs and Biological Products”. Rockville, MD: FDA Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (1998).
  19. Yaffe S., et al. “Rational therapeutics for infants and children: workshop summary”. National Academy Press (2000).
  20. Sumpter A and Anderson BJ. “Pediatric pharmacology in the first year of life”. Current Opinion in Anesthesiology 4 (2009): 469-475.
  21. Government of Western Australia Department of Health (GWADH). Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS): Translated versions - validated, Perth: Perinatal Mental Health Reference Group (2006).
  22. O'Hara MW and McCabe JE. “Postpartum depression: current status and future directions”. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology 9 (2013): 379-407.
Citation: Kerna NA, Nwokorie U, David CO, Odugbemi O, Uju C. An Overview of the Management and Treatment of Postpartum Depression (PPD). EC Gynaecology. 2020 Jul 28; 9.9: 63–68.

PubMed Indexed Article

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777

EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033

EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992

EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505

EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793

EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211

EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047

EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560

EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318

EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819

EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840

EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476

EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658

EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489

EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278

EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108

EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571

EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333

EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883

EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001

EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937

EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723

EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726

EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646

EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226

EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268

News and Events

January Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the November issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

ECronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before February 13, 2023.

Certificate of Publication

ECronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

ECronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.