Research Article
Volume 9 Issue 8 - 2020
Providing Community based Birth and Immediate Perinatal Care to Pregnant Women in Rural Districts of Zambia: Results of a Randomised Community Interventional Study in Mpongwe and Chongwe
Mary Shilalukey Ngoma1*, Chishala Chabala2 and Anitha Menon3
1Professor of Paediatrics and Child Health, University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia
2Childrens Hospital, University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia
3Professor of Health Psychology, University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia
*Corresponding Author: Mary Shilalukey Ngoma, Professor of Paediatrics and Child Health, University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia.
Received: June 07, 2020; Published: , 2020


The aim of the community based randomized control interventional study was to establish the capabilities of community health workers (CHWs) and traditional birth attendants (TBAs) to provide primary, home based maternal and immediate neonatal care. A total of 3846 pregnant women were recruited and 2000 gave birth during the study and 63% of these were delivered at home by the TBAs. CHWs and TBAs had been trained to provide antenatal care, delivery and perinatal and newborn care in the pilot districts.

Both the intervention and control groups were trained but only the intervention groups were equipped for the various interventions, while the control group provided routine Ministry of Health care. During the study 27% and 29% were pregnant in Chongwe and Mpongwe respectively. Home deliveries in respective districts were 57%, Chongwe; and 29% Mpongwe. Health centre deliveries were 40% Chongwe and 62% Mpongwe. More women in the intervention sites received perinatal care than in the control sites (p < 0.01). The CBAs were able to identify and record the danger signs such as: retained placenta, severe vaginal bleeding, prolonged labor and increased blood pressure. They also provided delivery and perinatal care such as: skilled attendance at delivery, observing for danger signs in the mother, observing for danger signs in the newborn, resuscitation of babies with asphyxia, and essential newborn care at birth. They referred complicated cases when they identified danger signs in the pregnant woman or baby. They additionally provided Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission care and administration of NVP to mother and newborn, while counseling the family when danger signs were identified. They encouraged early breastfeeding, keeping the infant warm, with Kangaroo Method of Care and referred those with complications.

Training, equipping and supervising community based health care givers, enabled them to capably offer antenatal, delivery and perinatal care which improved the wellbeing of pregnant women and their infants, in the early postnatal period. While Zambia upgrades the cadre of community health care givers, there is still need to give care to pregnant women.

Keywords: Birth; Perinatal Care; Pregnant Women; Zambia


  1. B Gianetti., et al. “Maternal Mortality Trends and correlates in Zambia”. National Public Health Institute (2018).
  2. Hopewell S., et al. “CONSORT for reporting randomized trials in journal and conference abstracts”. Lancet 371 (2008): 281-283.
  3. Hopewell S., et al. “CONSORT for reporting randomized controlled trials in journal and conference abstracts: explanation and elaboration”. PLOS Medicine 1 (2008): e20.
  4. Ioannidis JP., et al. “Better reporting of harms in randomized trials: an extension of the CONSORT statement”. Annals of Internal Medicine 10 (2004): 781-788.
  5. This page cannot be found.
  6. Pamela Chirwa-Banda. “Status of Maternal Mortality in Zambia: Use of Routine Data”. African Population Studies 29 (2015): 2.
  7. United Nations Joint Report, United Nations News Centre (2004).
  8. The Zambia Demographic Health Survey (ZDHS) (2018).
  9. , et al. “Reducing Maternal Mortality in Developing Countries”. Give Well Journal (2001) Brooklyn, New York (2001).
  10. Bergstrom Staffan and Elizabeth Goodburn. “The Role of Traditional Birth Attendants in the Reduction of Maternal mortality”. In Safe Motherhood Strategies: a review of the evidence (2001).
  11. , et al. “Can Clinical Risk Factors for Late Still Birth be Detected During Antenatal Period or Only During labour?” International Journal of Epidemiology, Oxford Journals 31.3 (2002): 661-668.
  12. World Health Organization, Health Statistics and Health Information Systems, “Health Status Statistics: Mortality” (2012).
  13. Jelka Z. “Perinatal Mortality in developing Countries”. The New England Journal of Medicine (2005).
  14. , et al. “Potential to Save Newborn Lives in Rural communities of Zambia”. USAID- Health Care Improvement Report (2011).
  15. Dharma S Manandahar., et al. “Effect of a participatory intervention with women’s groups on birth outcomes in Nepal: cluster- randomized controlled trial”. Lancet 364 (2004): 970-979.
  16. Joy E Lawn., et al. “4 million neonatal deaths: When? Where? Why?” Lancet 365 (2005): 891-900.
  17. Lewyca S., et al. “A cluster randomized controlled trial of the community effectiveness of two interventions in Malawi to improve health care and to reduce maternal newborn and infant mortality”. Trials 11 (2010): 88.
Citation: Mary Shilalukey Ngoma., et al. “Providing Community based Birth and Immediate Perinatal Care to Pregnant Women in Rural Districts of Zambia: Results of a Randomised Community Interventional Study in Mpongwe and Chongwe”. EC Gynaecology 9.8 (2020): 28-35.

PubMed Indexed Article

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777

EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033

EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992

EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505

EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793

EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211

EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047

EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560

EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318

EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819

EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840

EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476

EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658

EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489

EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278

EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108

EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571

EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333

EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883

EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001

EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937

EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723

EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726

EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646

EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226

EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268

News and Events

January Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the January issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

ECronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before January 17, 2022.

Certificate of Publication

ECronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

ECronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.

Immediate Assistance

The prime motto of this team is to clarify all the queries without any delay or hesitation to avoid the inconvenience. For immediate assistance on your queries please don't hesitate to drop an email to