Review Article
Volume 9 Issue 6 - 2020
Diagnostic and Treatment Features for Pregnancy in a Case of Complex Maternal Cyanotic Cardiac Malformation-Review of Literature and Our Experience
Tibeică Alexandra-Maria2*, Ursache Alexandra2, Matasariu Roxana2, Tibeica Andreea3, Nhambasora Farai2, Tanase Adina2, Tanasa Ingrid2, Sascău Radu2 and Onofriescu Mircea1,2,3
1Professor and Chairman Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, University of Medicine and Pharmacy “Grigore T. Popa” - Iasi, Romania
2Cuza Voda Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital, Iasi, Romania
3Lecturer, Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, University of Medicine and Pharmacy “Grigore T. Popa” - Iasi, Romania
*Corresponding Author: Ursache Alexandra, Cuza Voda Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital, Iasi, Romania.
Received: April 15, 2020; Published: May 11, 2020


Pregnancy in women with cyanotic heart disease is considered to be a high risk for both mother and fetus, as there are some possible complications that can occur during and after the pregnancy that can affect the mother, fetus or both. We present the effects of pregnancy on maternal cardiac function and the effects of heart disease on the fetus. We present the result of a successful case for both mother and baby, as well as the effects of pregnancy on maternal cardiac function and hemodynamics. In this case, the patient presented with postpartum pulmonary vascular disease, cyanosis and heart failure. Regarding the fetal development, the child was born prematurely at 32 weeks, by caesarean section due to the modification of the Doppler parameters, a live birth, with a Mass of 1100 grams, grade l tricuspid regurgitation and intrauterine growth delay due to hypoxia.

Keywords: Atrial Septal Defect with Bidirectional Shunt; Maternal Common Arterial Trunk; Valve Hypoplasia and Maternal Pulmonary Artery


  1. Thompson JL., et al. “Medical and Obstetric Outcomes Among Pregnant Women with Congenital Heart Disease”. Obstetrics and Gynecology 126 (2015): 346.
  2. Elkayam U., et al. “High-Risk Cardiac Disease in Pregnancy: Part II”. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 5 (2016): 502-516.
  3. European Society of Gynecology (ESG), Association for European Paediatric Cardiology (AEPC), German Society for Gender Medicine (DGesGM)., et al. “2018 ESC Guidelines on the management of cardiovascular diseases during pregnancy: the Task Force on the Management of Cardiovascular Diseases during Pregnancy of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC)”. European Heart Journal 32 (2011): 3147.
  4. Canobbio MM., et al. “Management of Pregnancy in Patients with Complex Congenital Heart Disease: A Scientific Statement for Healthcare Professionals From the American Heart Association”. Circulation 135 (2017): e50.
  5. Clarkson PM., et al. “Outcome of pregnancy after the Mustard operation for transposition of the great arteries with intact ventricular septum”. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 24 (1994): 190.
  6. D'Souza R and Silversides C. “Pregnancy following atrial-switch repair”. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 123 (2016): 814.
  7. Tobler D., et al. “Pregnancy outcomes in women with transposition of the great arteries and arterial switch operation”. The American Journal of Cardiology 106 (2010): 417.
  8. Perloff JK. “The Clinical Recognition of Congenital Heart Disease, 6th edition”. Elsevier/Saunders, Philadelphia (2012).
  9. Baumann H., et al. “Pregnancy and delivery by caesarean section in a patient with transposition of the great arteries and single ventricle. Case report”. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 94 (1987): 704.
  10. Sumner D., et al. “Successful pregnancy in a patient with a single ventricle”. European Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Reproductive Biology 44 (1992): 239.
  11. Bitsch M., et al. “Eisenmenger's syndrome and pregnancy”. European Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Reproductive Biology 28 (1988): 69.
  12. Lao TT., et al. “Pregnancy after the fontan procedure for tricuspid atresia. A case report”. The Journal of Reproductive Medicine 41 (1996): 287.
  13. Nishimura RA., et al. “2017 AHA/ACC guideline for the management of patients with valvular heart disease: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines”. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 63 (2014): e57.
  14. Burn J., et al. “Recurrence risks in offspring of adults with major heart defects: results from first cohort of British collaborative study”. Lancet 351 (1998): 311.
  15. Kovacs AH., et al. “Pregnancy and contraception in congenital heart disease: what women are not told”. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 52 (2008): 577.
  16. Parry AJ and Westaby S. “Cardiopulmonary bypass during pregnancy”. The Annals of Thoracic Surgery 61 (1996): 1865.
Citation: Tibeică Alexandra-Maria., et al. “Diagnostic and Treatment Features for Pregnancy in a Case of Complex Maternal Cyanotic Cardiac Malformation-Review of Literature and Our Experience”. EC Gynaecology 9.6 (2020): 26-35.

PubMed Indexed Article

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777

EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033

EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992

EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505

EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793

EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211

EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047

EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560

EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318

EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819

EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840

EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476

EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658

EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489

EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278

EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108

EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571

EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333

EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883

EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001

EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937

EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723

EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726

EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646

EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226

EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268

News and Events

August Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the August issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

ECronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before August 18, 2022.

Certificate of Publication

ECronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

ECronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.