Literature Review
Volume 9 Issue 3 - 2020
A Literature Review of Stem Cells Therapy on Premature Ovarian Insufficiency
M Rusda*, MFG Siregar, I Adenin, M Sitepu, R Rivany and I Parinda
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Sumatera Utara, Indonesia
*Corresponding Author: M Rusda, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Sumatera Utara, Indonesia.
Received: December 09, 2019; Published: February 05, 2020




Abstract

Introduction: Premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) is defined as a primary ovarian defect, characterized by an absent menarche (primary menarche) or premature loss of ovarian follicles before 40 years of age (secondary amenorrhea). Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) has been used to treat POI. However, HRT both increases the risk for recurrence of cancer and fundamentally fails to restore normal ovarian function. Stem cell therapy has recently been identified as a potential and alternative therapeutic means of potentially repairing and restoring the normal function of damaged tissues, presenting a novel approach for clinical treatment of POI. Research on stem cell transplantation for the treatment of POI is mostly limited to preliminary animal experiments. 

Objective: To elaborate stem cells therapy as one of the promising therapy on premature ovarian insufficiency. 

Method: Based on literature review. 

Discussion: Mesenchymal stem cells are multi-potent stem cells and the advantages of this cells are readily available and imperfectly (poorly) immunogenic. MSC can be derived from several tissues in the adult or infant human body, including adipose tissue, peripheral blood, umbilical cord blood, banked umbilical cord blood, umbilical cord membrane, umbilical cord vein, Wharton’s jelly of the umbilical cord, placenta, decidua basalis, amniotic fluid, etc. MSC have been found to secrete growth factors, including VEGF, IGF-1, and HGF into culture medium, to reduce germ cell and stromal cell apoptosis, and to enhance folliculogenesis through improvements in the microenvironment. Moreover, human amniotic fluid stem cells (hAFSC) are stem cells obtained during amniocentesis procedures or at delivery and characterized by both embryonic-specific cell markers and mesenchymal-specific cell markers. The CD44+/CD105+ subpopulation can be directly sorted from human amniotic fluid and cultured for ex vivo expansion. Previous studies have demonstrated the ability of these cells to differentiate into ectodermal, endodermal, mesodermal, hepatic cells and cardiac muscle cells. Additionally, hAFSC express a variety of growth factors, including EGF, bFGF, TGF-β, and BMP-4. Lastly, induced pluripotent stem cells and ovarian stem cells are still under investigation.

Conclusion: The mechanism of stem cells to improve ovarian function is questionable because the ability of stem cells to develop in vivo into fully functional follicles is still rare; the transplanted stem cells have been proven to differentiate into GC-like cells much more easily than into oocytes. 

Keywords: Stem Cells Therapy; Premature Ovarian Insufficiency; Follicles

References

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  2. Rebar RW. “Premature Ovarian Failure”. The American College of Obstetrician and Gynecologist (2009).
  3. Wang Z., et al. “Study of the reparative effects of menstrual-derived stem cells on premature ovarian failure in mice”. Stem Cell Research and Therapy (2017). 
  4. Chen L., et al. “Effect of stem cell transplantation of premature ovarian failure in animal models and patients: A meta-analysis and case report”. Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine (2017). 
  5. Nelson LM. “Primary Ovarian Insufficicency”. New England Journal Medicine 360.6 (2009). 
  6. Dan S., et al. “Pathogenesis and stem cell therapy for premature ovarian failure”. OA Stem Cells 2.1 (2014): 4. 
  7. Sheikhansari G., et al. “Current approaches for the treatment of premature ovarian failure with stem cell therapy”. Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy (2018). 
  8. Rafique S., et al. “A New Approach to Primary Ovarian Insufficiency”. Journal of Obstetric and Gynecology Clinical North American (2012). 
  9. Torrealday S., et al. “Premature Ovarian Insufficiency - an update on recent advances in understanding and management”. F1000 Research 6 (2017): 2069.
  10. Hayashi K., et al. “Reconstitution of mouse oogenesis in a dish from pluripotent stem cells”. Protocol Extension (2017). 
  11. Dan S., et al. “Pathogenesis and stem cell therapy for premature ovarian failure”. OA Stem Cells 2.1 (2014): 4. 
  12. Vanni VS., et al. “Advances in improving fertility in women through stem cell-based clinical platforms”. Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy (2017). 
  13. Yoon SY. “Mesenchymal stem cells for restoration of ovarian function. Clinical Expertise Reproductive Medicine”. The Korean Society for Reproductive Medicine (2019). 
  14. He Y., et al. “The therapeutic potential of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in premature ovarian failure”. Stem Cell Research and Therapy (2018). 
  15. Mohamed SA., et al. “Umbilical Cord Blood Mesenchymal Stem Cells as an Infertility Treatment for Chemotherapy Induced Premature Ovarian Insufficiency”. Biomedicines (2019). 
  16. Lai D., et al. “Human endometrial mesenchymal stem cells restore ovarian function through improving the renewal of germline stem cells in a mouse model of premature ovarian failure”. Journal of Translational Medicine (2015). 
  17. Liu T., et al. “CD44+/CD105+ Human amniotic Fluid Mesenchymal Stem Cells Survive and Proliferate in the Ovary Long-Term in a Mouse Model of Chemotherapy-Induced Premature Ovarian Failure”. International Journal of Medical Sciences (2012). 
Citation: M Rusda., et al. “A Literature Review of Stem Cells Therapy on Premature Ovarian Insufficiency”. EC Gynaecology 9.3 (2020): 01-04.

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