Review Article
Volume 8 Issue 8 - 2021
Inguinal Hernias: A Comparison of Surgical Options and Preventive Measures
Nicholas A Kerna1,2*, ND Victor Carsrud3, Uzoamaka Nwokorie4, Joseph Anderson II5, Lawrence U Akabike6, Hilary M Holets7,8Kevin D Pruitt9,10, Sahalia Rashid11 and Emmanueall O Solomon12
1SMC–Medical Research, Thailand
2First InterHealth Group, Thailand
3Lakeline Wellness Center, USA
4University of Washington, USA
5International Institute of Original Medicine, USA
6Larrico Enterprises, LLC, USA
7Beverly Hills Wellness Surgical Institute, USA
8Orange Partners Surgicenter, USA
9Kemet Medical Consultants, USA
10PBJ Medical Associates, USA
11All Saints University School of Medicine, Dominica
12Obafemi Awolowo University, Nigeria
*Corresponding Author: Nicholas A Kerna, (mailing address) POB47 Phatphong, Suriwongse Road, Bangkok, Thailand 10500.
Received: June 24, 2021; Published: July 24, 2021


Inguinal hernia is frequently diagnosed by clinical exam. Imaging tests are recommended in the absence of definitive signs or associated symptoms that indicate complications. Ultrasonography (US) is the most common method used for examination of the various types of hernias. Inguinal hernias are the most prevalent type of hernia. US (grayscale or color Doppler ultrasonography) is suggested for examining inguinal hernias. CT is used to differentiate inguinal and femoral hernia based on the correlation between the hernia sac and pubic tubercle. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is favored for diagnosing occult inguinal hernias when there are constraints associated with US and computed tomography (CT); or a lack of definitive diagnostic results.

Inguinal hernia is an acquired or congenital condition wherein the abdominal cavity contents protrude into the inguinal canal. In men, the testes migrate from the abdomen into the scrotum through the inguinal canal. Thus, men (more than women) are more likely to develop an indirect inguinal hernia. An indirect hernia can occur congenitally. Indirect inguinal hernias present on the lateral side of the Hesselbach triangle and enter the inguinal canal through the deep or internal inguinal ring. Direct inguinal hernias constitute inguinal hernias that protrude through the Hesselbach triangle, remaining medial and caudal to the inguinal canal’s origin at the internal inguinal ring. These hernias are common in older males and carry a lower risk of strangulation. The characteristic sign of a direct hernia on CT is a lateral fat crescent.

Developing biologically advanced meshes are part of ongoing hernia treatment and management research. Recently, a novel type of mesh has been developed that releases drugs. Also, “smart biomaterials”—that change shape—are being studied and tested for applications in hernia repair. Conservative management relies on reducing the hernia and applying a belt. Hernia belts or trusses are ordinarily used today as a temporary measure to relieve pain and discomfort. Surgical management is one of the most routine surgeries performed globally. Surgical repair and watchful waiting are generally recommended in asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic patients. Currently, the application of mesh is preferred to direct suturing. There are various types of mesh and corresponding procedures based on the mesh choice and degree, and type of herniation. Complications of surgery include death, infertility, and recurrence—placing limitations for surgical repair.

Keywords: Hernia Belt; Laparoscopic Repair; Male Infertility; Mesh; Pinchcock; Valsalva Maneuver


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Citation: Kerna NA, Carsrud NDV, Nwokorie U, Anderson II J, Akabike LU, Holets HM, Pruitt KD, Rashid S, Solomon EO. “Inguinal Hernias: A Comparison of Surgical Options and Preventive Measures”. EC Gastroenterology and Digestive System 8.8 (2021): 53-65.

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