Review Article
Volume 8 Issue 7 - 2021
A Comprehensive and Practical Guide to Clinical Nutrition in Medical Practice
Nicholas A Kerna1,2*, Hilary M Holets3,4, Abdullah Hafid5, John V Flores3,4, ND Victor Carsrud6, Uzoamaka Nwokorie7, Sahalia Rashid8, Joseph Anderson II9 and Shain Waugh10
1SMC–Medical Research, Thailand
2First InterHealth Group, Thailand
3Beverly Hills Wellness Surgical Institute, USA
4Orange Partners Surgicenter, USA
5Academy of Integrative Health & Medicine (AIHM), USA
6Lakeline Wellness Center, USA
7University of Washington, USA
8All Saints University School of Medicine, Dominica
9International Institute of Original Medicine, USA
10Fettle Path, USA
*Corresponding Author: Nicholas A Kerna, (mailing address) POB47 Phatphong, Suriwongse Road, Bangkok, Thailand 10500.
Received: May 26, 2021; Published: June 30, 2021




Abstract

Clinical nutrition is a medical discipline defined as the study of food nutrients and their application in healthcare for managing diseases, affecting the absorption and metabolism of nutrients. Any nutritional measure, preventive or curative, targeting individual patients, is considered is clinical nutrition. Clinical nutrition plays a vital role in both health and chronic disease management. Registered dieticians or nutritionists aid in restoring optimal maintaining patient health. Based on the nature and duration of therapy, medical treatment could be exhaustive to patients. Hence, optimal nutrition management is essential to support the patient’s overall health and minimize medical care complications. The main goal of nutrition therapy is to foster faster patient recovery, minimize complications of medical care, and improve clinical outcomes.

For several decades, dietary nutrition has been presumed to have an association with chronic diseases. Through experimental and clinical studies, it has been demonstrated that appropriate nutritional intervention and management results in enhanced outcomes with accelerated recovery in patients with chronic diseases compared to standard pharmaceutical treatment alone. This review explains the origin and development of nutrition science, and highlights the importance of nutritional intervention in clinical practice.

Keywords: Dietary Foods; Functional Foods; Malnutrition; Nutraceuticals; Nutritional Therapy; Refeeding Syndrome

References

  1. WHO Report of a Joint WHO/FAO Expert Consultation on Diet Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases (2003). https://www.who.int/home/cms-decommissioning
  2. Carpenter KJ. “A short history of nutritional science: part 3 (1912-1944)”. Journal of Nutrition 133 (2003): 3023-3032. https://academic.oup.com/jn/article/133/10/3023/4687555
  3. Carpenter KJ. “A short history of nutritional science: part 4 (1945-1985)”. Journal of Nutrition 133 (2003): 3331-3342. https://academic.oup.com/jn/article/133/11/3331/4817991
  4. Mozaffarian D., et al. “History of modern nutrition science-implications for current research, dietary guidelines, and food policy”. BMJ 361 (2018): k2392. https://www.bmj.com/content/361/bmj.k2392
  5. National Research Council Food and Nutrition Board. Toward healthful diets. National Academy of Sciences (1980).
  6. Backstrand JR. “The history and future of food fortification in the United States: a public health perspective”. Nutrition Reviews 60 (2002): 15-26. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11842999/
  7. Bishai D and Nalubola R. “The history of food fortification in the United States: Its relevance for current fortification efforts in developing countries”. Economic Development and Cultural Change 51 (2002): 37-53. https://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/abs/10.1086/345361?journalCode=edcc
  8. Fletcher RJ., et al. “Public health aspects of food fortification: a question of balance”. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 63 (2004): 605-614. https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/proceedings-of-the-nutrition-society/article/public-health-aspects-of-food-fortification-a-question-of-balance/FA5847487687DBF1D6CD909F936746CB
  9. Van Den Wijngaart A., et al. “Regulatory monitoring systems of fortified salt and wheat flour in selected ASEAN countries”. Food and Nutrition Bulletin 34 (2013): S102-111. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24050001/
  10. Tanumihardjo SA., et al. “Poverty, Obesity, and Malnutrition: An International Perspective Recognizing the Paradox”. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 107 (2007): 1966-1972. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17964317/
  11. Briggs AD., et al. “Overall and income specific effect on prevalence of overweight and obesity of 20% sugar sweetened drink tax in UK: Econometric and comparative risk assessment modelling study”. BMJ 347 (2013): f6189. https://www.bmj.com/content/347/bmj.f6189
  12. Kearns CE., et al. “Sugar industry and coronary heart disease research: a historical analysis of internal industry documents”. JAMA Internal Medicine 176 (2016): 1680-1685. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27617709/
  13. Mozaffarian D., et al. “Role of government policy in nutrition-barriers and opportunities for healthier eating”. BMJ 361 (2018): k2426. https://www.bmj.com/content/361/bmj.k2426
  14. Ippolito PM. “How government policies shape the food and nutrition information environment”. Food Policy 24 (1999): 295-306. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0306919299000251
  15. Boutayeb A. “The double burden of communicable and non-communicable diseases in developing countries”. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 100 (2006): 191-199. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16274715/
  16. The double burden of malnutrition: policy brief (2017). http://www.who.int/nutrition/publications/doubleburdenmalnutrition-policybrief/en/
  17. USDA Dietary Guidelines for Americans (2015). https://health.gov/dietaryguidelines/2015/resources/2015-2020_dietary_guidelines.pdf
  18. Whatley Blum JE., et al. “Implementation of low-fat, low-sugar, and portion-controlled nutrition guidelines in competitive food venues of Maine public high schools”. Journal of School Health 77 (2007): 687-693. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18076414/
  19. Brown IJ., et al. “Salt intakes around the world: Implications for public health”. International Journal of Epidemiology 38 (2009): 791-813. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19351697/
  20. Sommer A and West KPJ. “Vitamin A deficiency: health, survival, and vision. Oxford University Press (1996).
  21. National Health and Medical Research Council Australian Dietary Guidelines (2013). https://www.eatforhealth.gov.au/sites/default/files/files/the_guidelines/n55_australian_dietary_guidelines.pdf
  22. World Health Organization, Food and Agricultural Organization. Diet, nutrition and the prevention of chronic diseases: Report of a joint WHO/FAO expert consultation (report 916). World Health Organization (2003). https://www.who.int/home/cms-decommissioning
  23. WHO Report of a Joint WHO/FAO Expert Consultation on Diet Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases (2003). https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/42665/WHO_TRS_916.pdf;jsessionid=06096C9A1400CFEB9F83869568E722FD?sequence=1
  24. Thomson CA and Ravia J. “A systematic review of behavioral interventions to promote intake of fruit and vegetables”. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 111 (2011): 1523-1535. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21963019/
  25. Micha R., et al. “Etiologic effects and optimal intakes of foods and nutrients for risk of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes: systematic reviews and meta-analyses from the Nutrition and Chronic Diseases Expert Group (NutriCoDE)”. PLoS One 12 (2017): e0175149. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28448503/
  26. Frieden TR. “Evidence for health decision making-beyond randomized controlled trials”. The New England Journal of Medicine 377 (2017): 465-475. https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/nejmra1614394
  27. Bishop KS and Ferguson LR. “The interaction between epigenetics, nutrition and the development of cancer”. Nutrients 7 (2015): 922-947. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4344568/
  28. Cederholm T., et al. “ESPEN guidelines on definitions and terminology of clinical nutrition”. Clinical Nutrition (2016). https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27642056/
  29. Sobotka L. “Basics in clinical nutrition”. 4th Galen (2012).
  30. ADA (American Dietetic Association). ADA policy statement on licensure”. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 91 (1991): 985.
  31. Estruch R., et al. “Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease with a Mediterranean diet”. The New England Journal of Medicine 368 (2013): 1279-1290. https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa1800389
  32. Sacks FM., et al. “Effects on blood pressure of reduced dietary sodium and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet”. The New England Journal of Medicine 344 (2001): 3-10. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11136953/
  33. Mozaffarian D., et al. “Components of a cardioprotective diet: new insights”. Circulation 123 (2011): 2870-2891. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21690503/
  34. Orrevall Y. “Nutritional support at the end of life”. Nutrition 4 (2015): 615-616. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/273525222_Nutritional_support_at_the_end_of_life
  35. Mlinšek G. “Cost-effectiveness of treatment with nutritional supplements in patients with chronic kidney disease”. Clinical Nutrition ESPEN 14 (2016): 48. https://clinicalnutritionespen.com/article/S2405-4577(16)30192-9/fulltext
  36. Clydesdale F. “IFT Expert Panel Report on Functional Foods: Opportunities and challenges”. Food Technology 58 (2004): 35-40.
  37. Donaldson MS. “Nutrition and cancer: A review of the evidence for an anti-cancer diet”. Nutrition Journal 1 (2004). https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC526387/
  38. Sesso HD., et al. “Dietary Lycopene, Tomato-Based Food Products and Cardiovascular Disease in Women”. The Journal of Nutrition 7 (2003): 2336-2341. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12840203/
  39. Mozaffarian D., et al. “Interplay Between Different Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in Men”. Circulation 2 (2005): 157-164. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15630029/
  40. Castillejo G., et al. “A Controlled, Randomized, Double-Blind Trial to Evaluate the Effect of a Supplement of Cocoa Husk That Is Rich in Dietary Fiber on Colonic Transit in Constipated Pediatric Patients”. Pediatrics3 (2006): e641-e648. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16950955/
  41. Van Rosendaal GM., et al. “Effect of time of administration on cholesterol-lowering by psyllium: a randomized cross-over study in normocholesterolemic or slightly hypercholesterolemic subjects”. Nutrition Journal 1 (2004). https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15453909/
  42. Cardenas D. “What is clinical nutrition? Understanding the epistemological foundations of a new discipline”. Clinical Nutrition ESPEN 11 (2016): e63-e66. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S2405457715001230
  43. Blunt SB and Kafatos A. “Clinical Nutrition Education of Doctors and Medical Students: Solving the Catch 22”. Advances in Nutrition 2 (2019): 345-350. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30624632/
  44. Cederholm T., et al. “Diagnostic criteria for malnutrition- an ESPEN consensus statement”. Clinical Nutrition 34 (2015): 335-340. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25799486/
  45. ESPEN guidelines on definitions and terminology of clinical nutrition (2016). https://www.espen.org/files/ESPEN-guidelines-on-definitions-and-terminology-of-clinical-nutrition.pdf
  46. CDR (Commission on Dietetic Registration). Registered dietitian (RD) certification (1999). https://www.cdrnet.org/certifications/registered-dietitian-rd-certification
  47. Obesity: preventing and managing the global epidemic. Report of a WHO Consultation”. World Health Organization Technical Report Series 894 (2000): 1-253. https://www.who.int/home/cms-decommissioning
Citation: Kerna NA, Holets HM, Hafid A, Flores JV, Carsrud NDV, Nwokorie U, Rashid S, Anderson II J, Waugh S. “A Comprehensive and Practical Guide to Clinical Nutrition in Medical Practice”. EC Gastroenterology and Digestive System 8.7 (2021): 76-86.

PubMed Indexed Article


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777


EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033


EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992


EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505


EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793


EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211


EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047


EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560


EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318


EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819


EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840


EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476


EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658


EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489


EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278


EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108


EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571


EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333


EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883


EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001


EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937


EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723


EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726


EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646


EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226


EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268


News and Events


January Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the November issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

ECronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before February 14, 2023.

Certificate of Publication

ECronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

ECronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.