Review Article
Volume 8 Issue 7 - 2021
Postnatal Nutrition during the Early Stage after Extremely Preterm Infants Born
Yi Feng*
Department of Clinical Nutrition, Xinhua Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China
*Corresponding Author: Yi Feng, Department of Clinical Nutrition, Xinhua Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.
Received: May 17, 2021; Published: June 11, 2021


Optimizing nutrition in extremely preterm (EPT) infants has been a major strategy to improve the quality of neonatal intensive care. However, there is no standard for accurately assessing the nutritional status of preterm infants, nor is there a clear consensus on the actual nutritional practices. Careful management of nutrients intake is essential to optimize outcomes for EPT infants. It is clear that just a few weeks of insufficient nutrition can lead to permanent disadvantage. Appropriate nutritional management before discharge may prevent the occurrence of nutritional deficit at discharge or continuously.

Keywords: Extremely Preterm (EPT); Postnatal Nutrition; Extremely Preterm Infants


  1. Swyer PR. “New perspectives in neonatal nutrition”. Biology of the Neonate 52 (1987): 4-16.
  2. Heird WC and Kashyap S. “Protein and energy requirements of low birth weight infants”. Acta Paediatrica Scandinavica 351 (1989): 13-23.
  3. Cooke R. “Postnatal growth in preterm infants: have we got it right?” Journal of Perinatology2 (2005): S12-S14.
  4. Te Braake FW., et al. “Amino acid administration to premature infants directly after birth”. Journal of Perinatology 147 (2005): 457-461.
  5. Te Braake FW., et al. “Parenteral amino acid and energy administration to premature infants in early life”. Sem Fetal Neo Med 12 (2007): 11-18.
  6. Ibrahim HM., et al. “Aggressive early total parental nutrition in low-birth-weight infants”. Journal of Perinatology 24 (2004): 482-486.
  7. Ziegler EE. “Nutrient requirements of premature infants. Nestle Nutrition Workshop Series”. Paediatric Programme 59 (2007): 161-172.
  8. Embleton ND., et al. “Postnatal malnutrition and growth retardation: an inevitable consequence of current recommendations in preterm infants?” Pediatrics 107 (2001): 270-273.
  9. Embleton ND. “Optimal protein and energy intakes in preterm infants”. Early Human Development 83 (2007): 831-837.
  10. Steward DK and Pridham KF. “Growth patterns of extremely low-birth-weight hospitalized preterm infants”. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing1 (2002): 57-65.
  11. Dusick AM., et al. “Growth failure in the preterm infant: can we catch up?” Seminars in Perinatology4 (2003): 302-310.
  12. Hack M., et al. “Catch-up growth during childhood among very low birth-weight children”. The Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine11 (1996): 1122-1129.
  13. Donovan R., et al. “Outcomes of early nutrition support in extremely low-birth-weight infants”. Nutrition in Clinical Practice4 (2006): 395-400.
  14. Martin CR., et al. “Nutritional practices and growth velocity in the first month of life in extremely premature infants”. Pediatrics 124 (2009): 649-657.
  15. McNelis K., et al. “Nutrition for the extremely preterm infant”. Clinics in Perinatology 44 (2017): 395-406.
  16. Izquierdo M., et al. “Changes in parenteral nutrition during the first week of life influence early but not late postnatal growth in very low-birth-weight infants”. Nutrition in Clinical Practice5 (2016): 666e72.
  17. Stoltz Sjostrom E., et al. “Nutrient intakes independently affect growth in extremely preterm infants: results from a population-based study”. Acta Paediatrica 11 (2013): 1067e74.
  18. Yang J., et al. “Relationship between amino acid and energy intake and long-term growth and neurodevelopmental outcomes in very lowbirth weight infants”. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition6 (2016): 820-826.
  19. Vlaardingerbroek H., et al. “Adaptive regulation of aminoacid metabolism on early parenteral lipid and high-dose amino acid administration in VLBW infants—a randomized, controlled trial”. Clinical Nutrition6 (2014): 982-990.
  20. Ehrenkranz RA. “Early, aggressive nutritional management for very low birth weight infants: what is the evidence?” Seminars in Perinatology2 (2007): 48-55.
  21. Dit Trolli SE., et al. “Early lipid supply and neurological development at one year in very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm infants”. Early Human Development1 (2012): S25-29.
  22. Jadcherla SR., et al. “Impact of process optimization and quality improvement measures on neonatal feeding outcomes at an all-referral neonatal intensive care unit”. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition5 (2016): 646-655.
  23. The EXPRESS Group. “Incidence of and risk factors for neonatal morbidity after active perinatal care: extremely preterm infants study in Sweden (EXPRESS)”. Acta Paediatrica7 (2010): 978e92.
  24. Stoll BJ., et al. “Neonatal outcomes of extremely preterm infants from the NICHD Neonatal Research Network”. Pediatrics3 (2010): 443e56.
  25. Klevebro S., et al. “Cohort study of growth patterns by gestational age in preterm infants developing morbidity”. BMJ Open11 (2016): e012872.
  26. Malikiwi AI., et al. “Postnatal nutritional deficit is an independent predictor of brochopulmonary dysplasis among extremely premature infants born at or less than 28 weeks gestation”. Early Human Development 131 (2019): 29-35.
  27. Sjöström ES., et al. “Low energy intake during the first 4 weeks of life increases the risk for severe retinopathy of prematurity in extremely infants”. Archives of Disease in Childhood 101 (2016): F108-F113.
  28. Klevebro S., et al. “Early energy and protein intakes and associations with growth, BPD, and ROP in extremely preterm infants”. Clinical Nutrition3 (2019): 1289-1295.
Citation: Yi Feng. “Postnatal Nutrition during the Early Stage after Extremely Preterm Infants Born”. EC Gastroenterology and Digestive System 8.7 (2021): 22-26.

PubMed Indexed Article

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777

EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033

EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992

EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505

EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793

EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211

EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047

EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560

EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318

EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819

EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840

EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476

EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658

EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489

EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278

EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108

EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571

EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333

EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883

EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001

EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937

EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723

EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726

EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646

EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226

EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268

News and Events

January Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the November issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

ECronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before February 13, 2023.

Certificate of Publication

ECronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

ECronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.