Review Article
Volume 8 Issue 2 - 2021
Causes, Consequences, and Cures of Clostridium difficile Infection
Nicholas A Kerna1,2*, John V Flores3,4, Hilary M Holets3,4, Lawrence U Akabike5, Mark H Chen6, Emmaneulla Olubumni Solomon7, Kevin D Pruitt8, Uzoamaka9 and Shain Waugh10
11SMC–Medical Research, Thailand
2First InterHealth Group, Thailand
3Beverly Hills Wellness Surgical Institute, USA
4Orange Partners Surgicenter, USA
5Larrico Enterprises, LLC, USA
6For Your Health, LLC, USA
7Obafemi Awolowo University, Nigeria
8Kemet Medical Consultants, USA
9University of Washington, USA
10Fettle Path, USA
*Corresponding Author: Nicholas A Kerna, (mailing address) POB47 Phatphong, Suriwongse Road, Bangkok, Thailand 10500. Contact:
Received: December 28, 2020 Published: Janaury 30, 2021


C. difficile infection (CDI) is distinctly associated with antibiotic use and the foremost cause of healthcare-associated infective diarrhea. The bacterial spores are primarily transmitted through the fecal-oral route. Worldwide, CDI affects about 8/100,000 individuals each year; the hospitalized population affected is about 4–8/1000 people), causing about 29,000 deaths in the United States alone; and affects about half a million people globally in 2011. In hospital settings, the spores are typically transmitted from the hands of healthcare workers to patients and vice versa. Risk factors for acquiring a C. difficile infection include exposure to most antibiotics, old age (although the younger population can be affected), and immunocompromised or hospitalized patients. The clinical presentation of CDI varies, from asymptomatic carriers to patients with life-threatening colitis. Patients with CDI may present with diarrhea, intense abdominal pain, fever, nausea, weakness, and decreased appetite or anorexia. Although active gastrointestinal bleeding is infrequent, fecal occult blood is positive in specific patients. The most severe form of CDI can lead to dehydration, abdominal distention, hypoalbuminemia, toxic megacolon, colon perforation, intestinal paralysis, kidney failure, septicemia, shock, and death. Most CDI cases are self-limiting with antibiotic therapy withdrawal or vancomycin/fidaxomicin/metronidazole therapy. However, in some patients, CDI can lead to complications requiring surgical intervention. In severe recurrent cases, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a promising treatment option. The preferred approach concerning CDI is contamination prevention rather than treating active CDI. Regular hand hygiene and other proactive sanitary measures are deemed simple yet effective measures in preventing C. difficile infection.


Keywords: Colitis; Community-Acquired; Enterohemorrhagic; Gastrointestinal; Ileus; Microflora; Nosocomial


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Citation: Kerna NA, Flores JV, Holets HM, Akabike LU, Chen MH, Solomon EO, Pruitt KD, Nwokorie U, Waugh S. “Causes, Consequences, and Cures of Clostridium difficile Infection”. EC Gastroenterology and Digestive System 8.2 (2021): 136-148.

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