Research Article
Volume 8 Issue 2 - 2021
The Potential of Crystalline Style of Green-Lipped Mussel Perna viridis as a Possible Copper Source for Industrial Application
Chee Kong Yap1*, Wan Hee Cheng2, Shih Hao Tony Peng3, Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim1, Rosimah Nulit1, Chee Wah Yap4, Moslem Sharifinia5, Alireza Riyahi Bakhtiari6, Salman Abdo Al-Shami7, Chee Seng Leow8 and Mohamad Saupi Ismail9
1Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM, Serdang, Selangor Malaysia
2Inti International University, Persiaran Perdana BBN, Nilai, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia
3All Cosmos Bio-Tech Holding Corporation, PLO650, Jalan Keluli, Pasir Gudang Industrial Estate, Pasir Gudang, Johor, Malaysia
4MES SOLUTIONS, 22C-1, Jalan BK 5A/2A, Bandar Kinrara, Puchong, Selangor, Malaysia
5Shrimp Research Center, Iranian Fisheries Science Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Bushehr, Iran
6Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Natural Resources and Marine Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Noor, Mazandaran, Iran
7Indian River Research and Education Center, IFAS, University of Florida, Fort Pierce, FL, USA
8Humanology Sdn Bhd, 73-3 Amber Business Plaza, Jalan Jelawat 1, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
9Fisheries Research Institute, Batu Maung, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia
*Corresponding Author: Chee Kong Yap, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM, Serdang, Selangor Malaysia.
Received: March 01, 2020; Published: January 18, 2021


This paper reanalyzed the copper (Cu) data reported by Yap., et al. (2006a) on the eight soft tissues of Perna viridis (green-lipped mussel) namely, byssus, foot, crystalline style, (CS), gonad, mantle, muscle, gill, and remainder. These Cu data were re-evaluated from the point of the industrial use. The data were re-analysed by using probability analysis and calculated for bioaccumulation factor. In general, it was found that Cu levels were the highest in CS compared to other different organs/soft tissues. Also, the Cu levels in the CS are comparable to habitat surface sediment based on bioaccumulation factor. Based on this accumulation pattern in all the mussel tissues in this study, the main storage and accumulation of Cu in P. viridis is CS. Therefore, it is suggested that CS of P. viridis is a potential Cu source for industrial application.

Keywords: Perna viridis; Cu Distribution; Different Soft Tissues


  1. Nriagu JO. “A history of global metal pollution”. Science 272 (1996): 223-224.
  2. Yap CK., et al. “Copper pollution in sediments: A review from the literature and the ecological and children’s health risk assessments”. In: Sediment Watch: Monitoring, Ecological Risk Assessment and Environmental Management. Editor: C.K. Yap. Nova Science Publishers, New York, USA (2018): 189-226.
  3. Rodrick GE. “Selected enzyme activities in Mya arenaria hemolymph”. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology B 43 (1979): 313-316.
  4. Judd W. “Crystalline style proteins from bivalve mollusks”. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology B 88 (1987): 333-339.
  5. Yap CK., et al. “Crystalline style and tissue redistribution in Perna viridis as indicators of Cu and Pb bioavailabilities and contamination in coastal waters”. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 63 (2006a): 413-423.
  6. Yap CK., et al. “Crystalline style and byssus of Perna viridis as indicators of Ni bioavailabilities and contamination in coastal waters of Peninsular Malaysia”. Malaysian Applied Biology Journal 1 (2006b): 7-13.
  7. Yap CK., et al. “Determination of heavy metal distributions in the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis as bioindicators of heavy metal contamination in the Johore Straits and Senggarang, Peninsular Malaysia”. Trends in Applied Sciences Research 4 (2007): 284-294.
  8. Yap CK., et al. “The length of crystalline style of Perna viridis in relation to shell length, shell width and shell height: Data for future reference”. Journal of Sustainability Science and Management 1 (2010): 39-46.
  9. Ibarrola I., et al. “Seasonal variation of digestive enzyme activities in the digestive gland and the crystalline style of the common cockle Cerastoderma edule”. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - Part A 121 (1998): 25-34.
  10. Olsen OM., et al. “Multiple invertebrate lysozymes in blue mussel (Mytilus edulis)”. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology B 136 (2003): 107-115.
  11. Yap CK., et al. “The potentials of digestive caecum in mudflat snail Telescopium telescopium as a possible cadmium source for industrial application”. EC Gastroenterology and Digestive System 9 (2019): 752-756.
  12. Badri MA and Aston SR. “Observation on heavy metal geochemical associations in polluted and non-polluted estuarine sediments”. Environmental Pollution Series B 6 (1983):181-193.
  13. “Trace Elements in Human Nutrition and Health, WHO. WHO Library Cataloguing in Publication Data, Geneva (1996).
  14. Cheung YH and Wong MH. “Trace metal contents of the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) purchased from markets in Hong Kong”. Environmental Resource Management 16 (1992): 753-761.
  15. Lobel PB., et al. “Metal accumulation in four molluscs”. Marine Pollution Bulletin 13 (1982): 170-174.
Citation: Chee Kong Yap., et al. “The Potential of Crystalline Style of Green-Lipped Mussel Perna viridis as a Possible Copper Source for Industrial Application”. EC Gastroenterology and Digestive System 8.2 (2021): 01-06.

PubMed Indexed Article

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777

EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033

EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992

EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505

EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793

EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211

EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047

EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560

EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318

EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819

EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840

EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476

EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658

EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489

EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278

EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108

EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571

EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333

EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883

EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001

EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937

EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723

EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726

EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646

EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226

EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268

News and Events

April Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the April issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for upcoming Issue

Ecronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before April 26, 2021.

Certificate of Publication

Ecronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

Ecronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.

Immediate Assistance

The prime motto of this team is to clarify all the queries without any delay or hesitation to avoid the inconvenience. For immediate assistance on your queries please don't hesitate to drop an email to