Welcoming you for any type of article submission for the upcoming issue on/before February 26, 2021.

Conceptual Paper
Volume 6 Issue 3 - 2021
Adenosine Deaminase and its Role in Diabetes Mellitus Type 2: Possible Marker of Insulin Resistance?
Karina Costa Coelho Gonçalves1and Luciene de Carvalho Cardoso Weide2*
1Clinical Analysis Postgraduate Program, Fluminense Federal University (UFF), Niterói, Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Brazil
2Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, UFF, Niterói, RJ, Brazil
*Corresponding Author: Luciene de Carvalho Cardoso Weide, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, UFF, Niterói, RJ, Brazil.
Received: February 23, 2021; Published: February 27, 2021

Adenosine deaminase (ADA) is a ubiquitously expressed enzyme, found in the cytosol where it catalyzes the irreversibly deamination of adenosine (deoxyadenosine) into inosine (deoxyinosine), in the purine pathway. ADA expression and activity is vital for the metabolism of purines, regulating the concentration of adenosine through the deamination process [1,2]. Absent or deficient ADA activity leads to the accumulation of the enzyme substrates, such as deoxyadenosine, which is a toxic metabolite related to the inhibition of DNA synthesis [3].


  1. Van der Weyden MB and Kelley WN. “Human Adenosine Deaminase. Distribution and properties”. Journal of Biological Chemistry 251 (1976): 5448-5456.
  2. Vanessa Sauer., et al. “Auto immune dysregulation and Purine Metabolism in Adenosine Deaminase deficiency”. Aisha Frontiers in Immunology265 (2012): 1-19.
  3. Cohen A., et al. “Deoxyadenosine triphosphate as a potentially toxic metabolite in adenosine deaminase deficiency”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 75 (1978): 472-476.
  4. Zavialov AV., et al. “Human adenosine deaminase 2 induces differentiation of monocytes into macrophages and stimulates proliferation of T helper cells and macrophages”. Journal of Leukocyte Biology 88 (2010).
  5. Aiuti A., et al. “Gene Therapy for Immunodeficiency Due to Adenosine Deaminase Deficiency”. The New England Journal of Medicine 360 (2009): 447-458.
  6. Vineet Kumar Khemka., et al. “Raised Serum Adenosine Deaminase Level in Nonobese Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus”. The Scientific World Journal 9 (2013): 404320.
  7. Sibel Yurt., et al. “Diagnostic utility of serum and pleural levels of adenosine deaminase and interferon-γ in the diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis”. Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine 1 (2014): 12.
  8. Hoffbrand A and Janossy G. “Enzyme and membrane markers in leukaemia: Recent developments”. Journal of Clinical Pathology 34 (1981): 254-262.
  9. Burgess LJ., et al. “The use of adenosine deaminase as a diagnostic tool for peritoneal tuberculosis”. Tuberculosis 81 (2001): 243-248.
  10. Saraya T., et al. “Diagnostic Value of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor, Transforming Growth Factor-β, Interleukin-8, and the Ratio of Lactate Dehydrogenase to Adenosine Deaminase in Pleural Effusion”. Lung2 (2018): 249-254.
  11. Yang X., et al. “Clinical characteristics and potential indicators for definite diagnosis of tuberculous pleural effusion”. Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology 1 (2019): 1924-1931.
  12. American Diabetes Association. “2. Classification and Diagnosis of Diabetes: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes-2019”. Diabetes Care1 (2019): S13-S28.
  13. International Diabetes Federation (2021).
  14. Shariq I Sherwani Yang X., et al. “. Significance of HbA1c Test in Diagnosis and Prognosis of Diabetic Patients”. Biomark Insights 11 (2016): 95-104.
  15. Amandeep Kaur Yang X., et al. “. Serum Adenosine Deaminase Activity and Its Correlation with Glycated Haemoglobin Levels in Patients of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus”. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research2 (2012): 252-256.
  16. Niraula A Yang X., et al. “. Adenosine deaminase activity in type 2 diabetes mellitus: does it have any role?”. BMC Endocrine Disorders1 (2018): 58.
  17. Nancie J MacIver Yang X., et al. “Metabolic Regulation of T Lymphocytes”. Annual Review of Immunology 31 (2013): 259-283.
  18. Shivaprakash S., et al. “Altered Adenosine Deaminase activity in the Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus”. Journal, Indian Academy of Clinical Medicine 2 (2006): 114-117.
  19. Hovi T Yang X., et al. “. Role of adenosine deaminase in lymphocyte proliferation”. Clinical and Experimental Immunology 3 (1976): 395-403.
  20. Erbagci Mustafa Akin Yang X., et al. “Elevated Adenosine Deaminase activity is not implicated in Microvascular complications of Type II Diabetes Mellitus except HbA1c”. Turkish Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism3 (2000): 95-99.
  21. Pinnelli VB Yang X., et al. “Elevated levels of serum adenosine deaminase in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients”. International Journal of Research in Medical Sciences1 (2016): 131-134.
  22. Hariprasath G andAnanthi N. “Glycemic Control And Raised Adenosine Deaminase Activity In Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus”. IOSR Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences1 (2017): 53-56.
  23. MNV Gowda Yang X., et al. “Serum Adenosine deaminase activity in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients”. International Journal of Diabetes in Developing Countries3 (2012): 176-181.
  24. Hoshino T Yang X., et al. “Elevated adenosine deaminase activity in the serum of patients with DM”. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 25 (1994): 97-102.
Citation: Karina Costa Coelho Gonçalves and Luciene de Carvalho Cardoso Weide. “Adenosine Deaminase and its Role in Diabetes Mellitus Type 2: Possible Marker of Insulin Resistance?”. EC Endocrinology and Metabolic Research 6.3 (2021): 39-41.

PubMed Indexed Article

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777

EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033

EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992

EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505

EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793

EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211

EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047

EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560

EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318

EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819

EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840

EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476

EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658

EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489

EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278

EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108

EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571

EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333

EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883

EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001

EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937

EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723

EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726

EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646

EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226

EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268

News and Events

March Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the March issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

ECronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before April 07, 2023.

Certificate of Publication

ECronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

ECronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.