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Editorial
Volume 5 Issue 9 - 2020
Metabolic Disease Pandemic: Call for Action
Gundu HR Rao*
Emeritus Professor, Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Director, Thrombosis Research, Lillehei Heart Institute, University of Minnesota, USA
*Corresponding Author:Gundu HR Rao, Emeritus Professor, Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Director, Thrombosis Research, Lillehei Heart Institute, University of Minnesota, USA.
Received: July 27, 2020; Published: August 11, 2020




Metabolic diseases such as hypertension, excess weight, obesity, type-2 diabetes, and vascular diseases, have reached epidemic proportions worldwide [1-4]. These diseases contribute significantly, to the overall morbidity and mortality related to cardiovascular diseases and stroke. Vascular diseases have remained number one killers for over a century. Cardiovascular diseases are the most common noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) globally, responsible for an estimated 18 million deaths in 2017, of which more than three quarters were, in low-income and middle-income countries. Known metabolic risks, that promote the development of metabolic diseases include, oxidative stress, chronic inflammation, elevated blood pressure, insulin resistance, altered glucose and lipid metabolism, endothelial dysfunction and subclinical atherosclerosis. According to the experts, all these metabolic risks develop due to unhealthy diet, sedentary habits and poor lifestyle. Hence these diseases are called lifestyle disorders. Several studies have demonstrated that healthy diet, exercise and lifestyle changes, significantly reduce premature mortality due to vascular diseases [5-7]. However, no country has demonstrated reduction, or reversal of metabolic diseases. According to the then Director General, Dr. Margaret Chen, “As part of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), Member States have set an ambitious target, to reduce premature mortality from NCDs-including diabetes-by one third; achieve universal health coverage; and provide access to affordable essential medicines-all by 2030.

References

  1. Saklayen M. “The Global Epidemic of Metabolic Syndrome”. Current Hypertension Reports 20.2 (2018): 12. 
  2. Chockalingam A., et al. “Worldwide Epidemic of Hypertension”. The Canadian Journal of Cardiology 22.7 (2006): 553-555. 
  3. GBD 2017 Risk Factor Collaboration. “Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 84 behavioral, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks for 195 countries and territories, 1990-2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017”. Lancet Global Health Metrics 392.10159 (2018): P1923-P1994.
  4. Singh GM., et al. “The age-specific quantitative effects of metabolic risk factors on cardiovascular and diabetes: a pooled analysis”. PLoS One 8 (2013): e65174.
  5. Di Cesare M., et al. “The contributions of risk factor trends to cardiometabolic mortality decline in 26 industrialized nations”. International Journal of Epidemiology 42.3 (2013): 838-848.
  6. Yusuf S., et al. “Effect of potentially modifiable risk factors associated with myocardial infarction in 52 countries (the INTERHEART study): case-control study”. Lancet 364.9438 (2004): P937-952.
  7. Khera AV., et al. “Genetic Risk, Adherence to a Healthy Lifestyle, and Coronary Disease”. The New England Journal of Medicine 375 (2016): 2349-2358.
  8. NCD Risk Factor Collaboration (NCD-RisC). “Trends in cardiometabolic risk factors in the Americas between 1980and 2014: a pooled analysis of population-based surveys”. Lancet Global Health 9.1 (2020): E123-E133.
  9. NCD Countdown 2030 Collaborators: NCD Countdown 2030: worldwide trends in non-communicable disease mortality and progress towards Sustainable Development Goals”. Lancet Health Policy 392.10152 (2018): 1072-1088.
  10. Horton R and Sargent J. “2018 must be the year for action against NCDs”. Comment. Lancet 391.10134 (2018): 1971-1973.
  11. Eckel RH., et al. “Preventing cardiovascular disease and diabetes: a call to action from the American Diabetes Association and the American Heart Association”. Central Institute for Research on Cattle 113 (2006): 2943-2946. 
  12. Grundy SM. “Metabolic Syndrome: a multiplex cardiovascular risk factor”. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 92 (2007): 399-404. 
  13. Frieden TR and Bloomberg MR. “How to prevent 100 million deaths from tobacco”. Lancet 369 (2007): 175801761.
  14. World Health Organization: WHO report on the global tobacco epidemic 2017: monitoring tobacco use and prevention policies”. WHO, Geneva (2017). 
  15. Frieden T and Bloomberg MR. “Saving an additional 100 million lives. Viewpoint”. Lancet 391.10121 (2018): 709-712.
Citation: Gundu HR Rao. “Metabolic Disease Pandemic: Call for Action”. EC Endocrinology and Metabolic Research 5.9 (2020): 05-07.

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