Welcoming you for any type of article submission for the upcoming issue on/before February 26, 2021.

Research Article
Volume 5 Issue 7 - 2020
Spatial Epidemiology Study of Congenital Hypothyroidism in Kerman Province Using Geographic Information System in 2011 - 2013
R Amirzadeh1, R Vazirinejad2, A Bahrampour3, M Sanjari4, M Shafiee5, M Jamshidi5, M Rezaeian2* and M Khatibi6
1MSc of Epidemiology, Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Institute for Futures Studies in Health, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
2Professor, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatics, Occupational Research Center, Medical School, Rafsanjan University of Medical Science, Rafsanjan, Iran
3Professor, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatics, Research Center for Modeling in Health, Institute for Futures Studies in Health, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
4Associate Professor, Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center, Institute of Basic and Clinical Physiology Sciences, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
5Deputy of Health Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
6Msc of Psychology, Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center, Institute of Basic and Clinical Physiology Sciences, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
*Corresponding Author: M Rezaeian, Professor, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatics, Occupational Research Center, Medical School, Rafsanjan University of Medical Science, Rafsanjan, Iran.
Received: June 01, 2020; Published: June 29, 2020


Background and Objectives: Hypothyroidism is one of the most important and preventable causes of mental retardation in newborns. The incidence of Congenital Hypothyroidism (CH) in Kerman province is considerably higher than the whole country.

Methodology: This study aimed to investigate the incidence and geographical distribution of CH by using Geographic Information System in Kerman province during 2011 - 2013. Three-year incidence rate of neonatal hypo thyroid disease was calculated and plotted on digital maps with the scale of 1/100000 using ArcGIS 0.9.2 software in Kerman province.

Result: In this study, 393 newborns with Congenital hypothyroidism who had been diagnosed through the three years (2011 - 2014) in Kerman province were investigated. Among this population, 225 cases were boys and 168 were girls. The incidence of three-years Congenital hypothyroidism was 1 in 230 live births, at the provincial level. The findings of this study showed that the incidence of Congenital hypothyroidism in Raver, Baft, Orzoeeyeh and Kuhbanan was higher than other cities in Kerman province (5.04 to 13.67 in 1000). There was no statistically significant correlation between sea level and the overall incidence of CH disease and only a weak correlation was seen between the average above sea level and incidence of CH in the female newborns (P = 0.116, r = 0.33).

Conclusion: In this study, it was showed that Raver, Baft, Orzoeeyeh and Kuhbanan cities had high incidence of disease, using the Geographic Information System. According to existing patterns, it seems that we should look for other factors such as socioeconomic status, parental consanguinity, genetic factors and also maternal nutritional deficiencies during pregnancy and more studies are needed in this regard.

Keywords: Neonatal Congenital Hypothyroidism; Geographic Information System; Kerman


  1. Jameson JL and Weetman AP. “Diseases of the thyroid gland”. Harrisons Principles of Internal Medicine2 (2005): 2104.
  2. Guyton AC and Hall JE. “Textbook of Medical, Physiology”. 1st Sounders Elsevier, Philadelphia (2011): 907-916.
  3. Lotfi M and Rahimi-Pordanjani S. “Comparison of the growth patterns among children with congenital hypothyroidism and healthy children in Yazd city in 2014: a historical cohort study”. Feyz Journal of Kashan University of Medical Sciences1 (2015).
  4. Hashemipour M., et al. “Effect of Diagnostic and Treatment Factors on Growth Development of Children with Congenital Hypothyroidism: A prospective longitudinal study (2015).
  5. Maciel LMZ., et al. “Congenital hypothyroidism:¬recommendations of the Thyroid Department of the Brazilian Society of Endocrinology and Metabolism”. Arquivos Brasileiros de Endocrinologia and Metabologia 3 (2013): 184-192.
  6. Yarahmadi Ajang N and Mahdavi A. “Progress report on the implementation of the national screening program for neonatal hypothyroidism in Iran – 2010” (2012): 30.
  7. Delange F. “Neonatal screening for congenital hypothyroidism: results and perspectives”. Hormones2 (1997): 51-61.
  8. Gruters A., et al. “Neonatal thyroid disorders”. Hormone Research in Paediatrics (2004): 24-59.
  9. Delavari A., et al. “Screening program of neonatal congenital hypothyroidism and transient TSH level increase in Iran”. Ministry of Health and Medical Education of Iran (2005).
  10. Hashemipour M., et al. “Prevalence of congenital hypothyroidism in Isfahan, Iran: results of a survey on 20,000 neonates”. Hormone Research in Paediatrics2 (2004): 79-83.
  11. Waller DK., et al. “Risk factors for congenital hypothyroidism: an investigation of infant's birth weight, ethnicity, and gender in California, 1990–1998”. Teratology1 (2000): 36-41.
  12. Sepandi M., et al. “Risk factors for congenital hypothyroidism in Fars Province, Iran, 2003-2006”. Journal of School of Public Health and Institute of Public Health Research1 (2009): 35-45.
  13. Hinton CF., et al. “Trends in incidence rates of congenital hypothyroidism related to select demographic factors: data from the United States, California, Massachusetts, New York, and Texas”. Pediatrics 2 (2010): S37-S47.
  14. Lamm SH and Doemland M. “Has perchlorate in drinking water increased the rate of congenital hypothyroidism?” Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine5 (1999): 409-411.
  15. Osooli M., et al. “Spatial distribution of congenital hypothyroidism in Iran using geographic information system”. Iranian Journal of Epidemiology1 (2009): 1-8.
  16. Law W., et al. “Congenital hypothyroidism in Wales (1982-1993): demographic features, clinical presentation and effects on early neurodevelopment”. Clinical Endocrinology2 (1998): 201-207.
  17. Harris KB and Pass KA. “Increase in congenital hypothyroidism in New York State and in the United States”. Molecular Genetics and Metabolism3 (2007): 268-277.
Citation: M Rezaeian., et al. “Spatial Epidemiology Study of Congenital Hypothyroidism in Kerman Province Using Geographic Information System in 2011 - 2013”. EC Endocrinology and Metabolic Research 5.7 (2020): 39-46.

PubMed Indexed Article

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777

EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033

EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992

EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505

EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793

EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211

EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047

EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560

EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318

EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819

EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840

EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476

EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658

EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489

EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278

EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108

EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571

EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333

EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883

EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001

EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937

EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723

EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726

EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646

EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226

EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268

News and Events

March Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the March issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

ECronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before April 07, 2023.

Certificate of Publication

ECronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

ECronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.