Welcoming you for any type of article submission for the upcoming issue on/before February 26, 2021.

Review Article
Volume 5 Issue 6 - 2020
Environmental Risk Factors for Differentiated Thyroid Cancer (DTC)
Donatella Casiglia1* and Carmelo Barbaccia2
1Endocrinology Department, King’s College Hospital London, Dubai, UAE
2ENT Department, King’s College Hospital London, Dubai, UAE
*Corresponding Author:Donatella Casiglia, Endocrinology Department, King’s College Hospital London, Dubai, UAE.
Received: April 17, 2020; Published: May 15, 2020


In the last 20 years, we are seeing a dramatic increasing of incidence of thyroid cancer, especially papillary variant. It is controversial whether the real increase is due to the improvement of detection, screening and overdiagnosis or a real increase is possible, as recent observations suggest.

Several risk factors are suspects to be responsible of the etiology.

Some environmental risk factors are strongly correlated with thyroid cancer as radiation exposure and iodine status. Others as diabetes and obesity, estrogen and lifestyle factors have been suggested as possible element of risk.

This review is analysing the possible environmental risk correlate with the increasing thyroid cancer incidence.

Keywords: Differentiated Thyroid Cancers (DTC); Papillary Thyroid Cancer (PTC); SEER Data (Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Result); Risk Factors


  1. Haugen BR., et al. “2015 American Thyroid Association Management Guidelines for Adult Patients with Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer: The American Thyroid Association Guidelines Task Force on Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer”. Thyroid 26 (2016): 1-133.
  2. Roman BR., et al. “The thyroid cancer epidemic, 2017 perspective”. Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity 5 (2017): 332-336.
  3. Hyeyeun Lim., et al. “Trends in Thyroid Cancer Incidence and Mortality in the United States, 1974-2013”. The Journal of the American Medical Association 13 (2017):1338-1348.
  4. Iglesias ML., et al. “Radiation exposure and thyroid cancer: a review”. Archives of Endocrinology and Metabolism 61-2 (2017): 180-187.
  5. Duffy BJ., et al. “Thyroid cancer in childhood and adolescence. A report on twenty-eight cases”. Cancer 3-6 (1950): 1018-1032.
  6. Socolow EL., et al. “Thyroid carcinoma in man after exposure to ionizing radiation. A summary of the findings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki”. The New England Journal of Medicine 268 (1963): 406-410.
  7. Furukawa K., et al. “Long-term trend of thyroid cancer risk among Japanese atomic-bomb survivors: 60 years after exposure”. International Journal of Cancer 132-5 (2013): 1222-1226.
  8. Dobyns BM., et al. “The surgical management of benign and malignant thyroid neoplasms in Marshall Islanders exposed to hydrogen bomb fallout”. World Journal of Surgery 16-1. (1992): 126-139.
  9. Williams D., et al “Radiation carcinogenesis: Lessons from Chernobyl”. Oncogene 27-2 (2008): S9-18.
  10. Cardis E., et al. “Risk of thyroid cancer after exposure to 131I in childhood”. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 97-10 (2005): 724-732.
  11. Suzuki S., et al. “Comprehensive survey results of childhood thyroid ultrasound examinations in Fukushima in the first four years after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident”. Thyroid 26-6 (2016): 843-851.
  12. Veiga LHS., et al. “Thyroid cancer after childhood exposure to external radiation: an updated pooled analysis of 12 studies”. Radiation Research 185-5 (2016): 473-484.
  13. Memon A., et al. “Dental X-Rays and the Risk of Thyroid Cancer and Meningioma: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Current Epidemiological Evidence”. Thyroid 29-11 (2019): 1572-1593.
  14. MN Nikiforova., et al. “Proximity of chromosomal loci that participate in radiation-induced rearrangements in human cells”. Science 290 (2000): 138-141.
  15. Saad AG., et al. “Proliferative activity of human thyroid cells in various age groups and its correlation with the risk of thyroid cancer after radiation exposure”. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 91-7(2006): 2672-2677.
  16. Williams D., et al. “Radiation carcinogenesis: Lessons from Chernobyl”. Oncogene 27-2 (2008): S9-18.
  17. Togawa K., et al. “Long term strategies for thyroid health monitoring after nuclear accidents: recommendations from an Expert Group Convened by IARC”. The Lancet Oncology 10 (2018): 1280-1283.
  18. Burman KD., et al. “Iodine effects on the thyroid gland: biochemical and clinical aspects”. Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders 2 (2000): 19-25.
  19. Vuong HG., et al. “Genetic alterations of differentiated thyroid carcinoma in iodine-rich and iodine-deficient countries”. Cancer Medicine 5 (2016): 1883-1889.
  20. Nettore IC., et al. “Nutritional and Environmental Factors in Thyroid Carcinogenesis”. International Journal Environmental Research Public Health 15 (2018): E1735.
  21. Zamora-Ros., et al “Consumption of Fish Is Not Associated with Risk of Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC): Study”. Journal of Nutrition 147 (2017): 1366-1373.
  22. Wild S., et al. “Global prevalence of diabetes: estimates for the year 2000 and projections for 2030”. Diabetes Care 27 (2004): 1047-1053.
  23. Li H., et al. “Association of diabetes mellitus with thyroid cancer risk: A meta-analysis of cohort studies”. Medicine 96 (2017): 47.
  24. Hemminki K., et al. “Risk of cancer following hospitalization for type 2 diabetes”. Oncologist 15 (2010): 548-555.
  25. Lo SF., et al. “Modest increase in risk of specific types of cancer types in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients”. International Journal of Cancer 132 (2013): 182-188.
  26. Yeo Y., et al. “Diabetes mellitus and risk of thyroid cancer: a meta-analysis”. PLoS One 9-6 (2014).
  27. Luo J., et al. “Diabetes Treatment, and Risk of Thyroid Cancer”. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 3 (2016): 1243-1248.
  28. Schmid D., et al. “Adiposity and risk of thyroid cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis”. Obesity Review 16-12 (2015): 1042-1054.
  29. Yin DT., et al. “The association between thyroid cancer and insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome and its components: A systematic review and meta-analysis”. The International Journal of Surgery 57 (2018): 66-67.
  30. Liu Y., et al. “Review of Factors Related to the Thyroid Cancer Epidemic”. International Journal of Endocrinology (2017): 5308635.
  31. Wang P., et al “Increased risk of papillary thyroid cancer related to hormonal factors in women”. Tumour Biology 36-7 ( 2015): 5127-5132.
  32. Tahboub R., et al. “Sex steroids and the thyroid”. Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 23 (2009): 769-780.
  33. An JH., et al. “A possible association between thyroid cancer and breast cancer”. Thyroid 25 (2015): 1330-1338.
  34. Liangbo D., et al. “Review of the possible association between thyroid and breast carcinoma”. World Journal of Surgical Oncology 16 (2018): 130.
  35. Felicetti F., et al. “Thyroid Autoimmunity and Cancer”. Endocrine Immunology 48 (2017): 97-109.
  36. Noureldine SI., et al. “Association of Hashimoto's thyroiditis and thyroid cancer”. Current Opinion in Oncology1 (2015): 21-25.
  37. Wei S., et al. “Thyroid carcinoma in patients with Graves' disease: an institutional experience”. Endocrine Pathology 26-1 (2015): 48-53.
  38. Ren M., et al. “Predictive factors of thyroid cancer in patients with Graves' disease”. World Journal of Surgery 38 (2014): 80-87.
  39. Young AC., et al “Thyroid cancer risk and smoking status: a meta-analysis”. Jeongseon Kim Cancer Causes Control 25 (2014): 1187-1195.
  40. Schmid D., et al. “Physical activity, diabetes, and risk of thyroid cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis”. European Journal of Epidemiology12 ( 2013): 945-958.
Citation: Donatella Casiglia and Carmelo Barbaccia. “Environmental Risk Factors for Differentiated Thyroid Cancer (DTC)”. EC Endocrinology and Metabolic Research 5.6 (2020): 04-12.

PubMed Indexed Article

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777

EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033

EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992

EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505

EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793

EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211

EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047

EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560

EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318

EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819

EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840

EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476

EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658

EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489

EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278

EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108

EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571

EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333

EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883

EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001

EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937

EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723

EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726

EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646

EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226

EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268

News and Events

March Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the March issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

ECronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before April 07, 2023.

Certificate of Publication

ECronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

ECronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.