Welcoming you for any type of article submission for the upcoming issue on/before February 26, 2021.

Conceptual Paper
Volume 5 Issue 4 - 2020
New Doors for the Endocrine Disease Management from the Molecular Perspective
Saumy Johnson*
Assistant Professor in Respiratory Therapy, Inaya Medical College, Riyadh, KSA
*Corresponding Author: Saumy Johnson, Assistant Professor in Respiratory Therapy, Inaya Medical College, Riyadh, KSA.
Received: March 12, 2020; Published: March 31, 2020

Pancreas produces digestive enzymes and hormones to control blood glucose balance in the body. This comprises of two segments. Exocrine tissue includes acinar cells and ductal system to carry the digestive juice till duodenum. Surrounded inside the exocrine tissues exist in extremely organized well-made elements called islets of Langerhans in which the five hormone secreting cells are assembled. A highly structured molecular program which is complex to regulate the allocation of cell progenitors towards mature endocrine cells during mouse pancreas genesis [1-4].

At the 13.5th embryonic day of gestation secondary transition occurs where pancreatic epithelium undergoes growth, branching and differentiation whereas on the 12.5th day of gestation fusion of ventral and dorsal pancreas take place. Multipotent progenitor cells marked by the expression of Pdx1, Ptf1a, Cpa1, and c-myc be present in tip of the branching epithelium which is seen through the Genetic lineage tracing experiments [5]. After the 14th gestational day the t progenitors separate as acinar, duct, and endocrine cell to finally limited to exocrine face [6,7].


  1. Mansouri A. “Development and regeneration in the endocrine pancreas”. ISRN Endocrinology (2012): 640956.
  2. P Collombat., et al. “Specifying pancreatic endocrine cell fates”. Mechanisms of Development 7 (2006): 501-512.
  3. MA Guney and M Gannon. “Pancreas cell fate”. Birth Defects Research C 3 (2009): 232-248.
  4. GK Gittes. “Developmental biology of the pancreas: a comprehensive review”. Developmental Biology 1 (2009): 4-35.
  5. RL Pictet., et al. “An ultrastructural analysis of the developing embryonic pancreas”. Developmental Biology4 (1972): 436-467.
  6. Q Zhou., et al. “A multipotent progenitor domain guides pancreatic organogenesis”. Developmental Cell 1 (2007): 103-114.
  7. S Rieck., et al. “Lineage determinants in early endocrine development”. Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology 6 (2012): 673-684.
  8. Y Dor., et al. “Adult pancreatic β-cells are formed by self-duplication rather than stem-cell differentiation”. Nature6987 (2004): 41- 46.
  9. K Brennand., et al. “All beta cells contribute equally to islet growth and maintenance”. PLoS Biology 7 (2007): e163.
  10. M Teta., et al. “Growth and regeneration of adult beta cells does not involve specialized progenitors”. Developmental Cell 5 (2007): 817-826.
  11. H Liu., et al. “Precursor cells in mouse islets generate new β-cells in vivo during aging and after islet injury”. Endocrinology2 (2010): 520-528.
  12. Y Guz., et al. “Regeneration of pancreatic β cells from intra-islet precursor cells in an experimental model of diabetes”. Endocrinology11 (2001): 4956- 4968.
  13. A Fernandes., et al. “Differentiation of new insulin-producing cells is induced by injury in adult pancreatic islets”. Endocrinology4 (1997): 1750-1762.
  14. R De Haro-Hernandez., et al. “Regeneration of β-cells and neogenesis from small ducts or acinar cells promote recovery of endocrine pancreatic function in alloxan-treated rats”. Archives of Medical Research 2 (2004): 114-120.
  15. E Kroon., et al. “Pancreatic endoderm derived from human embryonic stem cells generates glucose-responsive insulin-secreting cells In vivo”. Nature Biotechnology 4 (2008): 443-452.
  16. U Ahlgren., et al. “Independent requirement for ISL1 in formation of pancreatic mesenchyme and islet cells”. Nature6613 (1997): 257-260.
  17. C Cras-M´eneur., et al. “Presenilins, Notch dose control the fate of pancreatic endocrine progenitors during a narrow developmental window”. Genes and Development 17 (2009): 2088-2101.
  18. EB Harmon., et al. “GDF11 modulates Ngn3+ islet progenitor cell number and promotes β-cell differentiation in pancreas development”. Development24 (2004): 6163-6174.
  19. R Desgraz and PL Herrera. “Pancreatic neurogenin 3- expressing cells are unipotent islet precursors”. Development21 (2009): 3567-3574.
  20. PA Seymour., et al. “A dosage-dependent requirement for Sox9 in pancreatic endocrine cell formation”. Developmental Biology1 (2008): 19-30.
  21. AE Schaffer., et al. “Nkx6 transcription factors and Ptf1a function as antagonistic lineage determinants in multipotent pancreatic progenitors”. Developmental Cell6 (2010): 1022- 1029.
  22. M Solar., et al. “Pancreatic exocrine duct cells give rise to insulin-producing beta cells during embryogenesis but not after birth”. Developmental Cell6 (2009): 849-860.
  23. S Wang., et al. “Sustained Neurog3 expression in hormone-expressing islet cells is required for endocrine maturation and function”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America24 (2009): 9715-9720.
  24. VM Schwitzgebel., et al. “Expression of neurogenin3 reveals an islet cell precursor population in the pancreas”. Development16 (2000): 3533-3542.
  25. FJ Naya., et al. “Diabetes, defective pancreatic morphogenesis, and abnormal enteroendocrine differentiation in BETA2/NeuroD-deficient mice”. Genes and Development18 (1997): 2323-2334.
  26. S Kordowich., et al. “Arx and Nkx2.2 compound deficiency redirects pancreatic alpha and beta-cell differentiation to a somatostatin/ghrelin coexpressing cell lineage”. BMC Developmental Biology 52 (2011).
  27. TL Mastraccia., et al. “Nkx2.2 and Arx genetically interact to regulate pancreatic endocrine cell development and endocrine hormone expression”. Developmental Biology 1 (2011): 1-11.
  28. JB Papizan., et al. “Nkx2.2 repressor complex regulates islet β-cell specification and prevents β-to-α-cell reprogramming”. Genes and Development 21 (2011): 2291-2305.
  29. Y Hang and R Stein. “MafA and MafB activity in pancreatic β cells”. Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism9 (2011): 364-373.
  30. M Teta., et al. “Very slow turnover of β-cells in aged adult mice”. Diabetes9 (2005): 2557-2567.
  31. K Tanigawa., et al. “Effect of aging on B-cell function and replication in rat pancreas after 90% pancreatectomy”. Pancreas1 (1997): 53-59.
  32. SI Tschen., et al. “Age dependent decline in β-cell proliferation restricts the capacity of β-cell regeneration in mice”. Diabetes6 (2009): 1312-1320.
  33. MM Rankin and JA Kushner. “Adaptive β-cell proliferation is severely restricted with advanced age”. Diabetes6 (2009): 1365-1372.
  34. ICozar-Castellano KK., et al. “Induction of beta-cell proliferation and retinoblastoma protein phosphorylation in rat and human islets using adenovirus-mediated transfer of cyclindependent kinase-4 and cyclin D1”. Diabetes1 (2004): 149-159.
  35. Winther KH., et al. “Selenium in thyroid disorders - essential knowledge for clinicians”. Nature Reviews Endocrinology 16 (2020): 165-176.
Citation: Saumy Johnson. “New Doors for the Endocrine Disease Management from the Molecular Perspective”. EC Endocrinology and Metabolic Research 5.4 (2020): 38-41.

PubMed Indexed Article

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777

EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033

EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992

EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505

EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793

EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211

EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047

EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560

EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318

EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819

EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840

EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476

EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658

EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489

EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278

EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108

EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571

EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333

EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883

EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001

EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937

EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723

EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726

EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646

EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226

EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268

News and Events

March Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the March issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

ECronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before April 07, 2023.

Certificate of Publication

ECronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

ECronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.