Welcoming you for any type of article submission for the upcoming issue on/before February 26, 2021.

Research Article
Volume 5 Issue 2 - 2020
Role of Inflammation on the Control of the Arterial Hypertension among Patients with Metabolic Syndrome
Ylber Jani1*, Atila Rexhepi2, Bekim Pocesta3, Ahmet Kamberi4, Fatmir Ferati2, Sotiraq Xhunga5, Artur Serani5, Dali Lala6, Agim Zeqiri7, Arben Mirto8 and Lutfi Zylbeari1
1Faculty of Medicine, Tetovo, Republic of North Macedonia
2Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Tetovo, Republic of North Macedonia
3Department of Cardiology, Faculty of Medicine, “Ss Kiril and Metodij” University, Skopje, Republic of North Macedonia
4Department of Cardiology, Faculty of Medicine, M. Teresa Tirana, Republic of Albania
5Department of Cardiology, Medical Center Dures, Republic of Albania
6Private Health Institute of Family Medicine “Florenc”, Tetovo, Republic of North Macedonia
7Department of Internal Medicine, General Hospital “DR Ferit Murat” Gostivar, Republic of North Macedonia
8Private Health Institute, “Rostusha” Debar, Republic of North Macedonia
*Corresponding Author: Ylber Jani, Faculty of Medicine, Tetovo, Republic of North Macedonia
Received: January 08, 2020; Published: January 31, 2020


Background: It is widely accepted that hypertension is a pro-inflammatory disease and that the immune system plays a vital role in mediating hypertensive outcomes, end organ damages and modulation of hypertensive pathology [2]. Patient with MetS usually present increased levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) which is a prototypic marker of inflammation [5], however the data of the influence of increased levels of CRP on the control of the arterial hypertension in patients with MetS, are scarce.

Objective: We sought to determine the increased CRP levels influence on the control of the arterial hypertension in patients with MetS.

Methods: We conducted a multicenter observational cross-sectional study. The study population recruited from a couple of outpatient clinic between June 2018 and June 2019. The population study consisted of 420 patients with MetS aged ≥ 18 years, divided in two groups: 211 with level of CRP > 3 mg/l and 209 participants with CRP level < 3 mg/l.

Results: Among those with CRP level > 3 mg/l (N = 211) controlled BP according to evidence and current guidelines, was achieved in 23.6% of participants, whereas among those with CRP level < 3 mg/l (N = 209) controlled BP was achieved in 48.3%; p = 0.000). There was independent association of CRP levels > 3 mg/l with uncontrolled BP (OR = 3.1, 95%CI 2.06 - 4.75). There were significant association of uncontrolled BP with: uncontrolled glycemia (OR = 1.4, 95%CI 0.97 - 1.84); increased BMI (OR = 4.4; 95%CI 3.02 - 4.05) and five risk factors for MetS (OR = 2.3, 95%CI 1.93 - 2.81).

Conclusion: We think, we brought some good evidence, in our present study, that patients with MetS and higher CRP level have a higher prevalence of uncontrolled BP.

Keywords: C-Reactive Protein; Control of BP in Patient with Metabolic Syndrome


  1. “Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics-2019. Update: a report from the American Heart Association”. Circulation 139 (2019): e56-528.
  2. Tomasz P., et al. “Adaptive Immunity in Hypertension”. Current Hypertension Reports 21 (2019): 68.
  3. Ford ES. “Prevalence of the Metabolic Syndrome Defined by the International Diabetes Federation among adults in the U.S”. Diabetes Care 28.11 (2005): 2745-2749.
  4. Ford ES., et al. “Prevalence and correlates of metabolic syndrome based on a harmonious definition among adults in the US”. Journal of Diabetes 2.3 (2010): 180-193.
  5. Haffner SM. “The metabolic syndrome: inflammation, diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease”. The American Journal of Cardiology 97.2A (2006): 3A-11A.
  6. Bryan Williams., et al. “2018 ESC/ESH Guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension”. European Heart Journal 39.33 (2018): 3021-3104. 
  7. America Diabetes Association. “Standards for medical care for patient with diabetes mellitus”. Diabetes Care 25.1 (2002): S33-S49.
  8. Center for disease control/American Heart association Workshop on inflammatory Markers, and Cardiovascular Disease: Application to clinical and public health practice: Atlanta, Ga. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2002).
  9. Ford ES., et al. “Prevalence and correlates of metabolic syndrome based on a harmonious definition among adults in the US”. Journal of Diabetes 2.3 (2010): 180-193.
  10. Organisation WH. “Waist circumference and waist -hip ratio: report of WHO expert consultation”. Geneva (2008): 8-11.
  11. Guzik TJ., et al. “Role of the T cell in the genesis of angiotensin II induced hypertension and vascular dysfunction”. Journal of Experimental Medicine 204 (2007): 2449-2460.
  12. Pruijm M., et al. “Inflammatory markers and blood pressure: sex differences and the effect of fat mass in the CoLaus Study”. Journal of Human Hypertension 27 (2013): 169-175.
  13. Sesso HD., et al. “C-reactive protein and the risk of developing hypertension”. Journal of American Medicine Association 290 (2003): 2945-2951.
  14. Grundy SM. “Inflammation, hypertension, and the metabolic syndrome”. Journal of American Medicine Assocaition 290.22 (2003): 3000-3002.
  15. Smith GD., et al. “Association of C-reactive protein with blood pressure and hypertension: life course confounding and mendelian randomization tests of causality”. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology 25 (2005): 1051-1056.
  16. Kjeldsen SE., et al. “Increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome in uncontrolled hypertension across Europe: the global cardiometabolic risk profile in patients with hypertension disease survey”. Journal of Hypertension 26 (2008): 2064-2070.
  17. Jani Y., et al. “Control of Arterial Hypertension among type-2 Diabetics”. International Journal of Biomedicine 3.4 (2013): 232-239.
  18. Arcucci O. et al. “Association of suboptimal blood pressure control with body size and metabolic abnormalities”. Journal of Hypertension 25 (2007): 2296-2300. 
  19. Garcia VP., et al. “Sex differences in High Sensitive C-Reactive Protein in subjects with Risk Factors of Metabolic Syndrome”. Arqquivos Brasileiros Cardiologia 106.3 (2016): 182-187.
  20. Ridker PM., et al. “Should C-reactive protein be added to metabolic syndrome and to assessment of global cardiovascular risk?”. Circulation 109 (2004): 2818-2825.
  21. Sandhu HS., et al. “A Study of Correlation between Lipid Profile and Body Mass Index (BMI) in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus”. Journal of Human Ecology 24 (2008): 227-229.
  22. Matsuda M and Shimomura I. “Increased oxidative stress in obesity: Implications for metabolic syndrome, diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis, and cancer”. Obesity Research and Clinical Practice 7 (2013): E330-E341.
Citation: Ylber Jani., et al. “Role of Inflammation on the Control of the Arterial Hypertension among Patients with Metabolic Syndrome”. EC Endocrinology and Metabolic Research 5.2 (2020): 01-07.

PubMed Indexed Article

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777

EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033

EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992

EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505

EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793

EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211

EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047

EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560

EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318

EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819

EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840

EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476

EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658

EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489

EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278

EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108

EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571

EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333

EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883

EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001

EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937

EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723

EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726

EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646

EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226

EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268

News and Events

March Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the March issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

ECronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before April 07, 2023.

Certificate of Publication

ECronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

ECronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.