Review Article
Volume 6 Issue 8 - 2022
Cyclic Nucleotides Signaling Pathways and Human Diseases: Potential Therapeutic Agents in the Management of Such Disease States
Chika J Mbah*
Department of Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria
*Corresponding Author: Chika J Mbah, Department of Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria.
Received: July 08, 2022; Published: July 27, 2022




Abstract

Every activity a cell is involved with is regulated by signals originating at the surface of the cell. Chemical substances that convert these extracellular signals received by cell surface receptors to intracellular signals are called second messenger molecules (second messengers). Activation by diffusible second messenger molecules and activation by recruitment of proteins to the plasma membrane constitute two major mechanisms of signal transduction pathways of a cell. Intracellular protein kinases or intracellular ligand- gated channels are activated by second messengers. The degradation of these second messengers results in signal termination. Protein kinase A (PKA) and protein kinase G (PKG) are involved in numerous human biological cellular processes. Cyclic nucleotides namely cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) are among the second messengers. A number of human diseases are associated with cyclic nucleotide signal pathways some of which are Alzheimer’s disease, asthma, topic dermatitis, attention deficit hyperactivity disorders, bipolar disorders, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, cirrhosis of the liver, Cushing’s syndrome, diabetic diseases albinism, Barrter’s disease, cancer, Down’s syndrome, erythermalgia, Fanconi anaemia, glaucoma, Huntington’s disease, infertility etc. Numerous chemical substances such as cyclic nucleotide activators and/or inhibitors, protein kinases activators and/or inhibitors, phosphodiesterases inhibitors have been used as therapeutic agents against these diseases arising from defects in the signal pathways of the cyclic nucleotides.

Keywords: Cyclic Nucleotides Signaling Pathways; Human Diseases; Therapeutic Agents

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Citation: Chika J Mbah. “Cyclic Nucleotides Signaling Pathways and Human Diseases: Potential Therapeutic Agents in the Management of Such Disease States”. EC Emergency Medicine and Critical Care 6.8 (2022): 09-16.

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